GLOSSARY

NAMEDESCRIPTIONCATEGORIES/OTHER NAMEBENEFIT/FUNCTIONCAN BE FOUND IN PRODUCT?SAFETY MEASURE/SIDE EFFECT/CONCERN
ASCORBIC ACID (VITAMIN C)Vitamin C creates a brighter complexion and evens out skin tone, while diminishing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) is a vitamin C ester, which means that it has been esterified to a fatty acid. It is fat soluble as opposed to the water-soluble ascorbic acid, which may hinder its ability to penetrate skin. Also, ascorbyl palmitate produces different short and long-term effects compared with ascorbic acid.
Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP) is similar to ascorbic acid in that it is water-soluble. However, it also has what AA lacks: a gentle effect on skin, efficacy in lower concentrations, and stability at a neutral pH. In one study, researchers discovered that it was statistically more effective than ascorbyl tetra-isopalmitoyl (see below) in free radical reduction, although less so than AA. However, it does seem to better quench the deeper layers of skin than ascorbic acid.
Ascorbyl tetra-isopalmitoyl (ATIP) is a vitamin C derivative. It is stable, due to being fat soluble and less irritating than ascorbyl acid. There is a 2006 study that concluded that it can suppress UV-induced skin pigmentation at a 3% dose. Tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate plays nice with vitamins A and E and UV filters. One study published in Dermatologic Surgery in 2002 showed that a topical formulation combining 10% vitamin C and 7% tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate improved hydration and collagen synthesis in the skin and resulted in "clinically visible and statistically significant improvement in wrinkling" after 12 weeks. A 2009 study claims that it can actually prevent UV damage occurring. and effective at a lower concentration. However, ATIP seems to be a poor
performer when it comes to penetrating skin.
Sodium ascorbyl phosphate (SAP) is known to promote collagen formation, and its ability to be stabilized for at least 24 months if it is stored in the original sealed containers at 25 degrees Celsius. It is also being lauded as an effective acne fighter. Still, it is a fairly new
derivative, so there is not a great deal of research comparing it to ascorbic acid.
So, how do L-Ascorbic Acid and its derivatives stack up against each other? Overall, it seems that AA is the winner and champion when it comes to vitamin C and skin care. One study revealed that topical application of ascorbic
acid outperformed both MAP and ATIP in antioxidant potential. Another study showed that AA permeated the skin more effectively than AP in gel and cream formulations. Finally, a study comparing the effectiveness of AA in anhydrous solutions revealed that MAP and SAP both have negligible free radical foraging ability compared to ascorbic acid.
While some derivatives (like Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate and Sodium ascorbyl phosphate) seem to have noteworthy benefits, it is important to make sure that L-Ascorbic Acid is near the top of the ingredients list when searching for vitamin C creams. Though, perhaps an ideal serum would include first and foremost ascorbic acid, followed by smaller amounts of a derivative.
When added to your daily routine, vitamin C provides a range of benefits, from evening out your skin tone, shielding skin from the visible impacts of pollution, significantly improving hydration, and keeping your skin looking younger, longer!
Ascorbic Acid: Vitamin C Royalty
Out of the many beneficial forms of vitamin C, ascorbic acid is a superstar for its proven antioxidant properties that boost firmer-feeling skin. This powerhouse ingredient is backed by research for dramatically brightening and evening skin tone.
Meet Your Anti-Aging Superstars
Ascorbic Acid (AA) is vitamin C in its purest form. This unstable, water-soluble antioxidant seems to be the key to benefiting from the nutrient’s skin-rejuvenating powers. It is usually found in concentrations of 5 – 25%, though it is arguable what concentration is best for absorption. While some say a 10% concentration boosts collagen synthesis, others say the optimal amount is 20%, and still others claim that nothing over 18% can be absorbed.
Also important to ascorbic acid’s effectiveness is its pH level. The lower the pH level, the more stable, permeable and, therefore, effective it is. When its pH level is too high, it oxidizes, degrades and becomes inactive – or sometimes even a harbor for dangerous free radical
formation.
UBIQUINONEAlso known as coenzyme Q10, it is a vitamin-like, fat-soluble substance naturally present in the body. Applied to skin, it can have antioxidant benefits due to its energizing effect on factors in skin that tend to slow down with age and cumulative sun exposure. Ubiquinone is another name for CoQ10, a potent antioxidant naturally produced by the body and important to cell functioning and development. Ubiquinone naturally decreases with aging, and it is used in cosmetics and personal care products (in a wide variety of formulas) as an anti-aging ingredient that replaces some of the natural antioxidant produced by the body, whether ingested or applied topically (Wikipedia). When applied topically, Ubiquinone is thought to penetrate the skin easily, and reduce free radical damage via its antioxidant properties. It is also been found to assist cells in building collagen and elastin, therefore reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, according to SmartSkinCare.com. Ubiquinone also has properties that allow it to prevent or reduce oxidative damage to tissues, and may be more effective than Vitamin E at preventing this damage (TheMayoClinic).Skin-Soothing, AntioxidantsUbiquinone is another name for CoQ10, a potent antioxidant naturally produced by the body and important to cell functioning and development. Ubiquinone naturally decreases with aging, and it is used in cosmetics and personal care products (in a wide variety of formulas) as an anti-aging ingredient that replaces some of the natural antioxidant produced by the body, whether ingested or applied topically (Wikipedia). When applied topically, Ubiquinone is thought to penetrate the skin easily, and reduce free radical damage via its antioxidant properties. It is also been found to assist cells in building collagen and elastin, therefore reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, according to SmartSkinCare.com. Ubiquinone also has properties that allow it to prevent or reduce oxidative damage to tissues, and may be more effective than Vitamin E at preventing this damage (TheMayoClinic).
Ubiquinone, as CoQ10, is also considered effective in treating a large number of internal diseases, including Parkinson's disease. Patients suffering from a wide variety of health effects and conditions may have a low level of natural CoQ10, or Ubiquinone; it is often taken as a supplement to assist in rebuilding cells.
/COQ10 or coenzyme Q10
The Cosmetics Database finds Ubiquinone to be a low hazard ingredient, but does note concerns regarding developmental and reproductive toxicity, and lesser concerns regarding neurotoxicity and organ system toxicity, based on animal studies that showed reproductive effects and blood effects at moderate doses and brain and nervous system effects at high doses. This ingredient has also been found to cause contact dermatitis when combined as the compound Hydroxydecyl Ubiquinone, according to the scientific journal Contact Dermatitis. It has the potential to cause a rash or allergic reaction when applied topically, and when ingested, can lead to stomach ailments.
TOCOPHERYL ACETATETocopheryl acetate is a form of vitamin E, a natural skin-conditioning agent and antioxidant. It is the ester of acetic acid and tocopherol and is often used as an alternative to pure tocopherol (or undiluted vitamin E) because it is considered more stable and less acidicTocopheryl acetate is a form of vitamin E, a natural skin-conditioning agent and antioxidant. It is the ester of acetic acid and tocopherol and is often used as an alternative to pure tocopherol (or undiluted vitamin E) because it is considered more stable and less acidic.
Tocopheryl acetate is a fat-soluble vitamin that can be isolated from vegetable oils. It is also found in dairy products, meat, eggs, cereals, nuts, and leafy green and yellow vegetables. Its substantiated benefits include enhancing the efficacy of
active sunscreen ingredients, reducing the formation of free radicals from exposure to UV rays, promoting the healing process, strengthening the skin's barrier function, protecting the skin barrier's lipid balance, and reducing transepidermal water loss. Attributed with antioxidant, anti-aging, moisturizing, anti-inflammatory, and enhanced SPF properties, tocopherol acetate is valued both as a dietary supplement and skincare active. It is used in a variety of cosmetic and personal care products, including lipstick, eye shadow, blushers, face powders and foundations, moisturizers, skin care products, bath soaps and detergents, and hair conditioners.
As an antioxidant superstar, vitamin E is one of the most well-researched antioxidants. It is available in eight different forms, which can be extracted from nature or synthetically produced. When the vitamin E molecule is derived form natural sources, it is preceded by a "d" prefix (e.g. d-alpha-tocopherol); when it is created synthetically, this is indicated by a "dl" prefix (e.g. dl-alpha tocopherol acetate). According to an article in the November 2001 issue of Nutrition Science News, research indicates that the body synthesizes natural Vitamin E far better than synthetic versions. A 2003 study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed that natural
forms of vitamin E have a higher potency and retention rate than their synthetic derivatives (source). Nonetheless, all forms of tocopheryl acetate deliver antioxidant benefits.
Though all members of the vitamin E family are fat-soluble, tocopherol is the most bioavailable, and thus the most readily absorbed by the body. Tocotrienols, comprised of both tocopherols and tocotrienols, are the most complete form of vitamin E. They are endowed with potent neuroprotective, anticancer, and cholesterol-reducing properties not exhibited by tocopherols because of their
distribution in the fatty layers of the cell membrane. Some research points to tocotrienols, administered orally, as superior sources of antioxidant activity (source).
Tocopheryl acetate is considered a moderate hazard by the Environmental Working Group's Cosmetics Database, which notes concerns regarding cancer, contamination of hydroquinone (an FDA-restricted whitening compound), and organ system toxicity. The CIR demonstrates strong evidence that it is a human skin toxicant, and in vitro tests on mammalian cells showed positive mutation results, linking it to cancer. A study at Tel Aviv University found that indiscriminate intake of vitamin E can cause more harm than good (source). It has also been determined that tocopheryl acetate is a skin sensitizer that can instigate immune system responses such as itching, burning, scaling, hives, and blistering of skin (source). A 1991 study published in Contact Dermatitisfound that four cases of contact dermatitis were caused by cosmetic creams that contained tocopheryl acetate (source). Despite toxicity concerns, tocopheryl acetate is FDA approved and has received its GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) rating.

SODIUM ASCORBYL PHOSPHATEA Vitamin C derivative. Stable, water-soluble form of vitamin C that functions as an antioxidant and is potentially effective for brightening an uneven skin tone. There is also research showing amounts of 1% and 5% concentrations of sodium ascorbyl phosphate can influence factors linked to breakouts. Thus, this form of vitamin C may be an effective adjunct to anti-acne products that contain benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid. There is a lack of information available regarding Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate because it is a relatively new derivative of Vitamin C being used in skin care products. However, it is considered to be a very stable precursor of Vitamin C that is able to liberate the powerful antioxidant in the skin ( ScienceLab.com). Although Ascorbic Acid can be an irritant and actually cause acne, Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate is considered gentle and stable and waits to convert into Ascorbic Acid once it is absorbed. Therefore, it is thought to be a powerful antioxidant that can treat acne on the surface and even stimulate collagen, according to RealSelf.com. It also has skin-whitening abilities ( Beijing Brilliance Biochemical).

There is a lack of information available regarding Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate because it is a relatively new derivative of Vitamin C being used in skin care products. However, it is considered to be a very stable precursor of Vitamin C that is able to liberate the powerful antioxidant in the skin ( ScienceLab.com). Although Ascorbic Acid can be an irritant and actually cause acne, Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate is considered gentle and stable and waits to convert into Ascorbic Acid once it is absorbed. Therefore, it is thought to be a powerful antioxidant that can treat acne on the surface and even stimulate collagen, according to RealSelf.com. It also has skin-whitening abilities ( Beijing Brilliance Biochemical).The Cosmetics Database finds Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate to be a 99% safe ingredient and notes only data gaps as a concern. Although Vitamin C can be an irritant, Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate is considered safe and stable. However, studies done in Australia by the National Industrial Chemicals Notification Scheme found that it should only be used in concentrations up to 5% in most formulas, and up to .1% in sunscreens because it was found to be a moderate irritant and sensitizer in rabbit skin, as well as an eye irritant.


LAURETH-3Scientific Facts: The Laureth ingredients are produced by reacting ethylene oxide with lauryl alcohol. The numerical designation refers to the average number of repeating ethylene oxide units in the molecule. As the numerical value of Laureths increases, the viscosity of the ingredient increases until they become white, waxy solids.
The Laureth ingredients are produced by reacting ethylene oxide with lauryl alcohol. The numerical designation refers to the average number of repeating ethylene oxide units in the molecule. As the numerical value of Laureths increases, the viscosity of the ingredient increases until they become white, waxy solids. Laureth ingredients are polyethylene glycol ethers of lauryl alcohol that contain repeating ethylene oxide units. These ingredients are useful in cosmetic and personal care products as surfactants, cleansing agents, emulsifiers and solubilizers.
2- [2- [2- (DODECYLOXY) ETHOXY] ETHOXY] - ETHANOL; 2- [2- [2- (DODECYLOXY) ETHOXY] ETHOXY] ETHANOL; ETHAL 326; ETHANOL, 2- [2- [2- (DODECYLOXY) ETHOXY] ETHOXY] -; LAURYL ALCOHOL DI (OXYETHYLENE) ETHANOL; LAURYL TRIGLYCOL ETHER; PEG-3 LAURYL ETHER; POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL (3) LAURYL ETHER; POLYOXYETHYLENE (3) LAURYL ETHER; TRIETHYLENE GLYCOL DOD ECYL ETHER; 2- (2- (2- (DODECYLOXY) ETHOXY) ETHOXY
Surfactant - cleansing agent: Laureth-16, Laureth-20, Laureth-21, Laureth-25, Laureth-30, Laureth-38, Laureth-40
Surfactant - emulsifying agent: Laureth-1, Laureth-2, Laureth-3, Laureth-5, Laureth-6, Laureth-7, Laureth-8, Laureth-9, Laureth-10, Laureth-11, Laureth-12, Laureth-13, Laureth-14, Laureth-15, Laureth-16, Laureth-50
Surfactant - solubilizing agent: Laureth-20, Laureth-21, Laureth-25, Laureth-30, Laureth-38, Laureth-40
The Laureth ingredients (Laureth-1, Laureth-2, Laureth-3, Laureth-5, Laureth-6, Laureth-7, Laureth-8, Laureth-9, Laureth-10, Laureth-11, Laureth-12, Laureth-13, Laureth-14, Laureth-15, Laureth-16, Laureth-20, Laureth-21, Laureth-25, Laureth-30, Laureth-38, Laureth-40, Laureth-50) are polyoxyethers of lauryl alcohol. Laureth-3 is a polyethylene glycol ether of Lauryl Alcohol (q.v.).
The number in the name indicates the average number of units of ethylene oxide in the molecule. In cosmetics and personal care products, the Laureth ingredients are used in the formulation of a variety of bath, eye, facial, hair, cleansing and sunscreen products. They are also used in cuticle softeners, deodorants and moisturizing products.
The safety of the alkyl PEG ether ingredients, including the Laureth ingredients has been assessed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that the Laureth ingredients were safe as used in cosmetic products when formulated to be non-irritating.
Based on similar structures, the CIR Expert Panel determined that the alkyl PEG ether compounds, including the Laureth ingredients could be reviewed together. Developmental and reproductive toxicity studies as well as mutagenicity data were all negative for these compounds. These compounds can irritate the skin. Therefore, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that the Laureth ingredients, as well as the other alkyl PEG ether ingredients were safe as used when formulated to be nonirritating. Small amounts of 1,4-dioxane, a by-product of ethoxylation, may be found in the Laureth ingredients. The potential presence of this material is well known and can be controlled through purification steps to remove it from the ingredients before blending into cosmetic formulations.
STEARYL ALCOHOLStearyl Alcohol, Oleyl Alcohol and Octyldodecanol are long chain fatty alcohols. Stearyl Alcohol is a white, waxy solid with a faint odor, while Oleyl Alcohol and Octyldodecanol are clear, colorless liquids. These three ingredients are found in a wide variety of products such as hair conditioners, foundations, eye makeup, skin moisturizers, skin cleansers and other skin care products.
Other definition: it is an emulsion stabilizer and conditioning agent. Stearyl Alcohol is a naturaly fatty alcohol derived from stearic acid, coconut oil or vegetable fatty acids, and is used to soothe and soften as a conditioning agent and as an emulsifier. It is often found as a hair coating ingredient in shampoos and conditioners, and an emollient in creams and lotions for the skin (Sci-Toys.com and Wikipedia). It can also be used to thicken formulas, adding body and viscosity.
Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products? Stearyl Alcohol, Oleyl Alcohol and Octyldodecanol help to form emulsions and prevent an emulsion from separating into its oil and liquid components. These ingredients also reduce the tendency of finished products to generate foam when shaken. When used in the formulation of skin care products, Stearyl Alcohol, Oleyl Alcohol and Octyldodecanol act as a lubricants on the skin surface, which gives the skin a soft, smooth appearance.
Scientific Facts: Stearyl Alcohol and Oleyl Alcohol are mixtures of long-chain fatty alcohols. Stearyl Alcohol consists primarily of n-octadecanol, while Oleyl Alcohol is primarily unsaturated 9-n-octadecenol. Octyldodecanol is a branched chain fatty alcohol. Fatty alcohols are higher molecular weight nonvolatile alcohols. They are produced from natural fats and oils by reduction of the fatty acid (-COOH) grouping to the hydroxyl function (-OH). Alternately, several completely synthetic routes yield fatty alcohols which may be structurally identical or similar to the naturally-derived alcohols.
* An emulsion stabilizer and conditioning agentStearyl Alcohol is a naturaly fatty alcohol derived from stearic acid, coconut oil or vegetable fatty acids, and is used to soothe and soften as a conditioning agent and as an emulsifier. It is often found as a hair coating ingredient in shampoos and conditioners, and an emollient in creams and lotions for the skin (Sci-Toys.com and Wikipedia). It can also be used to thicken formulas, adding body and viscosity.The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviewed the safety of Stearyl Alcohol and approved its use as a multipurpose additive for direct addition to food. Stearyl Alcohol and Oleyl Alcohol have also been approved for use as indirect food additives. The safety of Stearyl Alcohol and related ingredients has been assessed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review(CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that Stearyl Alcohol, Oleyl Alcohol and Octyldodecanol were safe for use in cosmetics and personal care products. In 2004, the CIR Expert Panel considered available new data on Stearyl Alcohol, Oleyl Alcohol and Octyldodecanol and reaffirmed the above conclusion.
CIR Safety Review: The CIR Expert Panel noted that Stearyl Alcohol is found naturally in various mammalian tissues and the metabolism of Stearyl Alcohol and Oleyl Alcohol in animals is well described. Due to the chemical nature and benign biological activity of these compounds, they are not suspected of significant potential for carcinogenesis, reproductive or developmental effects. Furthermore, tests in humans of products containing these ingredients demonstrated low potential for skin irritation or sensitization.
Stearyl Alcohol is FDA and CIR approved.
The Cosmetics Database finds Stearyl Alcohol to be a low hazard ingredient, despite cancer, irritation, and organ system toxicity concerns and strong evidence that it is a human irritant by the CIR. One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses. However, the high doses that caused tumor formation are much higher than those likely to be found in cosmetics and personal care products.
No other studies were found that specifically listed negative side effects in relation to this ingredient.
SODIUM STEAROYL LACTYLATE*Exists predominantly as the sodium salt of stearoyl lactate, however other sodium salts may be present
SSL is typically manufactured from biorenewable feedstocks and is a commercially available non-toxic , biodegradable and FDA approved food additive widely used in baked goods, desserts and pet foods under the food label E481 (PubMed, Wikipedia). SSL is soluble in oils and fat, as well as having the ability to attract water molecules towards itself, making it useful in emulsifying oil/water and in the
retention of moisture, for products the food industry and cosmetics (Wikipedia, Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications). According to the Cosmetic Database SSL has been found in moisturizers, sunscreen, anti-aging skin care and eye creams.
SSL is typically manufactured from biorenewable feedstocks and is a commercially available non-toxic , biodegradable and FDA approved food additive widely used in baked goods, desserts and pet foods under the food label E481 (PubMed, Wikipedia). SSL is soluble in oils and fat, as well as having the ability to attract water molecules towards itself, making it useful in emulsifying oil/water and in the retention of moisture, for products the food industry and cosmetics (Wikipedia, Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications). According to the Cosmetic Database SSL has been found in moisturizers, sunscreen, anti-aging skin care and eye creams.Based upon information from Cosmetics Database and Wikipedia there lactates have been shown to be non-toxic (PubMed), there has been one study on dermal application of SSL which indicated slight irritation in human subjects (Contact Dermatitis).
SODIUM PCANatural component of skin, PCA (pyrrolidone carboxylic acid) is also a very good hydrating agent. Sodium PCA also functions as a skin-replenishing ingredient.
Sodium PCA is a naturally occurring humectant found in human skin that is a derivative of amino acids. Sodium PCA is the salt of pyrrolidone carbonic acid. It has high water absorbing properties, and is also considered to be hygroscopic, with the ability to absorb moisture from the air (VitaminStuff.com and other research). It can also bind moisture to cells, and hold several times its
weight in water. It delivers moisture to the hair and skin, and is often seen as an emollient or humectant in hair conditioners and moisturizers; it is also seen as an ingredient in shampoos, hair sprays, permanent waves, skin fresheners and other hair and skin care products, according to RealSelf.com.
Skin-ReplenishingSodium PCA is a naturally occurring humectant found in human skin that is a derivative of amino acids. Sodium PCA is the salt of pyrrolidone carbonic acid. It has high water absorbing properties, and is also considered to be hygroscopic, with the ability to absorb moisture from the air (VitaminStuff.com and other research). It can also bind moisture to cells, and hold several times its weight in water. It delivers moisture to the hair and skin, and is often seen as an emollient or humectant in hair conditioners and moisturizers; it is also seen as an ingredient in shampoos, hair sprays, permanent waves, skin fresheners and other hair and skin care products, according to RealSelf.com.The Cosmetics Database finds Sodium PCA to be a low hazard ingredient, and onlynotes concerns regarding the contamination of nitrosamine, a known toxin. According to theCIR Expert Panel on RealSelf.com, avoiding formulas that containnitrosating agents should resolve any concerns regarding nitrosamine. "Sodium PCA was nonirritating to the eye and skin at concentrations up to
50%. No evidence of phototoxicity, sensitization or comedogenicity was found. These ingredients were not genotoxic. In a range of clinical tests, PCA and Sodium PCA were found to be nonirritating and nonsensitizing (with and without UV exposure).
PROPYLENE GLYCOLdelivery ingredient used in cosmetics. There are websites and spam e-mails stating that propylene glycol is really industrial antifreeze and that it’s the major ingredient in brake and hydraulic fluids. These sites also state that tests show it’s a strong skin sensitizer. They further point out that the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) on propylene glycol warns users to avoid skin contact. As ominous as this sounds, it’s so far from the reality of cosmetics formulations that almost none of it holds any water or poses any real concern.
In fact, research from toxicologists has shown that propylene glycol and similar ingredients don’t present a health risk for people when used in cosmetics. It’s important to realize that the MSDS refers to a 100% concentration of a substance. Even water and salt have frightening comments regarding their safety according to their MSDS reports. In cosmetics, propylene glycol is used in small amounts to keep products from melting in high heat or from freezing. It also helps active ingredients penetrate skin. In the amounts used in cosmetics, it’s not a concern in the least.
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Board and other groups have analyzed all of the toxicology data and exposure studies concerning topical application of propylene glycol as commonly used in cosmetics products. Their conclusion was that it is safe and does not pose a health risk to consumers.
Propylene Glycol, a petroleum derivative produced by propylene oxide hydration, is a versatile ingredient used in over 4,000 products and formulas in the cosmetics and beauty industry as a moisturizer, skin conditioning agent, carrier in fragrance oils, solvent and viscosity decreasing agent. It is also a frequent food additive (as E1520) and is also found in deodorant sticks, toothpaste, mouthwash, tobacco products, and other industrial products such as anti-freeze and brake fluid (Wikipedia). It is responsible for the consistent texture of
lipstick, the consistency of lotions and formulas that contain both oil and water, the long-lasting fragrance of perfumes, and the foaming action of shampoos, according to Propylene-Glycol.com. In skin and hair care products, Propylene Glycol acts by retaining the moisture content of skin or the formula,preventing the escape of moisture or water.

Texture Enhancer; *A versatile moisturizer; Propane-1,2-diolPropylene Glycol, a petroleum derivative produced by propylene oxide hydration, is a versatile ingredient used in over 4,000 products and formulas in the cosmetics and beauty industry as a moisturizer, skin conditioning agent, carrier in fragrance oils, solvent and viscosity decreasing agent. It is also a frequent food additive (as E1520) and is also found in deodorant sticks, toothpaste, mouthwash, tobacco products, and other industrial products such as anti-freeze and brake fluid (Wikipedia). It is responsible for the consistent texture of lipstick, the consistency of lotions and formulas that contain both oil and water, the long-lasting fragrance of perfumes, and the foaming action of shampoos, according to Propylene-Glycol.com. In skin and hair care products, Propylene Glycol acts by retaining the moisture content of skin or the formula, preventing the escape of moisture or water.
Propylene glycol is metabolized by the body into lactic acid, which occurs naturally when muscles are exercised, while ethylene glycol is metabolized into oxalic acid, which is toxic (Dermaxime.com).
Propylene Glycol is CIR and FDA approved, and has received the GRAS rating. The Agency For Toxic Substances and Disease Registry says "propylene glycol rarely causes toxic effects, and then only under very unusual circumstances" such as "excessively large or rapidly infused intravenous injections".
The Cosmetics Database finds Propylene Glycol to be a moderate hazard ingredient and has concerns regarding cancer, developmental and reproductive toxicity, allergies and immunotoxicity, irritation and enhanced skin absorption, and organ system toxicity. Lesser concerns include neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption. There was limited evidence of skin, immune system or respiratory system toxicity, and the link to cancer as noted by the Cosmetics Database is based on in vitro tests that showed cell mutation, but not tumor development, in 1981.
Propylene Glycol is classified as an irritant by the National Library of Medicine, and the Material Safety Data Sheet lists it as a sensitizer that is slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant, permeator) or eye contact. Patients with eczema should use products containing Propylene Glycol with caution, as the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis to propylene glycol may be greater than 2% in patients with eczema. It can also enhance penetration of other ingredients, chemicals and toxins into the dermis as an absorption enhancer, increasing the potential for irritation. It is also used as the primary ingredient in transdermal patches, serving as a carrier for 'active' ingredients into the body. According to biochemist Dr. Vin on AntiAgingChoices.com, "PG penetrates the skin so quickly that the EPA warns factory workers to avoid skin contact, to prevent brain, liver, and kidney abnormalities.
POTASSIUM SORBATEUsed as a preservative, almost always used in conjunction with other preservatives
Potassium Sorbate is a mild preservative being used in cosmetic and skin care formulas as a paraben alternative to prevent or retard the growth of microorganisms and protect products from spoiling, according to CosmeticsInfo.org. Developed from Sorbic Acid, which is naturally found in the berries of the mountain ash tree, Potassium Sorbate is effective against fungi, mold and yeast, but less active against bacteria, and therefore not considered a broad spectrum preservative; it needs to be used in conjunction with other preservatives to ensure formulas are totally protected. It is used in a wide variety of skin care and cosmetic products, including facial, eye and hair care formulas.
PreservativesPotassium Sorbate is a mild preservative being used in cosmetic and skin care formulas as a paraben alternative to prevent or retard the growth of microorganisms and protect products from spoiling, according to CosmeticsInfo.org. Developed from Sorbic Acid, which is naturally found in the berries of the mountain ash tree, Potassium Sorbate is effective against fungi, mold and yeast, but less active against bacteria, and therefore not considered a broad spectrum preservative; it needs to be used in conjunction with other preservatives to ensure formulas are totally protected. It is used in a wide variety of skin care and cosmetic products, including facial, eye and hair care formulas.
Potassium Sorbate is also used as a food preservative and is frequently seen as a wine ingredient to increase shelf life and stability (Wikipedia). It is FDA approved and not considered toxic. It is also CIR approved.
Potassium Sorbate is considered a very mild and natural preservative. The Cosmetics Database finds it to be a low hazard ingredient, and notes a concern that it may be a carcinogenic with lesser concerns regarding neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption. However, when ingested, Potassium Sorbate at 0.1% in the diet or 0.3% in drinking water for up to 100 weeks was shown to be not carcinogenic, and the FDA considers it to be safe because of its long term safety record and non-toxic profile, according to studies cited on CosmeticsInfo.org.
At concentrations up to 10%, Potassium Sorbate was practically nonirritating to the eye and only slightly irritating to skin, and is therefore considered non-irritating and non-sensitizing (Wikipedia).
POTASSIUM HYDROXIDEHighly alkaline ingredient (also known as lye) used in small amounts in cosmetics to modulate the pH of a product. It’s also used as a cleansing agent, most often in pure soaps or soap hybrid products. In higher concentrations, potassium hydroxide can aggravate skin, even if used in rinse-off products. Potassium Hydroxide is used in the cosmetic and skin care industry as a pH adjuster or bufferer in a wide variety of formulas, including bath products, cleansing products, fragrances, foot powders, hair dyes and colors, makeup, nail products, shampoos, shaving products, depilatories, skin care products, and suntan products, according to CosmeticsInfo.org. It has a unique ability to attract water molecules from its environment, and ultimately dissolve into the water that it had originally absorbed, balancing the formula without creating excess weight or changing the composition.A pH adjuster; buffering agent; Cleansing AgentsPotassium Hydroxide is used in the cosmetic and skin care industry as a pH adjuster or bufferer in a wide variety of formulas, including bath products, cleansing products, fragrances, foot powders, hair dyes and colors, makeup, nail products, shampoos, shaving products, depilatories, skin care products, and suntan products, according to CosmeticsInfo.org. It has a unique ability to attract water molecules from its environment, and ultimately dissolve into the water that it had originally absorbed, balancing the formula without creating excess weight or changing the composition.
Potassium Hydroxide is widely used in soft soap products because of its softness and high levels of solubility; soaps comprised of potassium require less water to liquefy, and can therefore containing higher concentrations of cleaning agents than other liquid soaps that are not potassium-based
Potassium Hydroxide is extremely corrosive and can be a hazardous irritant when exposure is at high levels. According to its Material Safety Data Sheet, it "May cause irritation. Prolonged contact may produce discoloration. Potassium hydroxide is corrosive! Contact of skin can cause irritation or severe burns and scarring with greater exposures." Other studies have shown that it can degrade the natural skin barrier.
However, the Cosmetics Database finds it a low hazard ingredient because of the low levels of concentration found in cosmetic and skin care formulas. It notes cancer, occupational hazard (because it is so volatile and corrosive), organ system toxicity and irritation concerns, and cites studies in which in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results and animal studies show skin irritation at very low doses.
The European Union classifies Potassium Hydroxide as toxic or harmful and limits workplace exposure. The severity of the effects caused by Potassium Hydroxide depends on the "concentration, the pH, the length of tissue contact time, and local conditions and skin type," according to CosmeticsInfo.org. The levels of this ingredient found in skin care products is unlikely to have corrosive or damaging effects
PANTHENOLhumectant because of its ability to attract and hold moisture. Sometimes called pro-vitamin B5, panthenol mixes readily with many different types of ingredients, making it a versatile ingredient to be used in formulas because it improves the look and feel of skin. Panthenol is the provitamin of B5 because and is used in cosmetics and beauty products primarily as a lubricant, emollient and moisturizer because of its ability to bind to the hair and penetrate the skin, providing both with lubrication and hydrationA Vitamin B5 derivativePanthenol is the provitamin of B5 because and is used in cosmetics and beauty products primarily as a lubricant, emollient and moisturizer because of its ability to bind to the hair and penetrate the skin, providing both with lubrication and hydration. As an ingredient in shampoos and conditioners, Panthenol's binding properties allow it to coat and seal the hair follicles, lubricating the shaft and making the hair appear shiny. As an ingredient in skin products, Panthenol has been seen to improve hydration, reduce itching and inflammation of the skin and accelerate and improve healing of epidermal wounds; it is also often used in sunburn treatment products. According to research, when Panthenol is applied topically, it penetrates into lower skin layers, is absorbed into skin cells and processed into Pantothenic Acid (commonly known as Vitamin B5). Because it is absorbed deeply into the skin, it adds essential moisture. Panthenol is also considered a potential acne treatment because of its absorption properties that can counteract bacteria and its anti-inflammatory properties.Pantenol is approved by the FDA and the CIR for use in cosmetics, and the Cosmetics Database finds it to be a rating of 1, due to lack of data. It has been shown to be a skin irritant in some studies, but only at high levels of exposure, unlike the concentrations common in beauty products or cosmetics.
BAMBUSA VULGARIS (BAMBOO) EXTRACT:Bambusa Vulgaris Extract is an extract of the leaves and stems of the bamboo, Bambusavulgaris.OTHER NAME: BAMBUSA VULGARIS EXTRACT, BAMBOO (BAMBUSA VULGARIS) EXTRACT; EXTRACT OF BAMBUSA VULGARISOral Care AgentOther HIGH concerns: Persistence and bioaccumulation; Other MODERATE concerns: Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive); Other LOW concerns: Enhanced skin absorption, Ecotoxicology.system toxicity (non-reproductive); Other LOW concerns: Enhanced skin absorption, Ecotoxicology.
METHYL GLUCETH-10Methyl Gluceth-20 is a water soluble emollient and humectant produced from Glucose and Methyl Alcohol and originally derived from corn sugar and corn starch. It is a versatile, gentle, effective humectant, emollient, and foaming agent that imparts a smooth feel to the skin. Methyl Gluceth-20 is specifically used for its moisture retentive qualities and ability to open pores and follicles. Methyl Gluceth-20 is a water soluble emollient and humectant produced from Glucose and Methyl Alcohol and originally derived from corn sugar and corn starch. It is a versatile, gentle, effective humectant, emollient, and foaming agent that imparts a smooth feel to the skin. Methyl Gluceth-20 is specifically used for its moisture retentive qualities and ability to open pores and follicles Methyl Gluceth-20 is considered extremely gentle and safe for use. It is not listed as an irritant, but no studies or research was found to document its safety by the FDA, CIR, etc.
LECITHINLecithin is a generic term to designate any group of fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues composed of phosphoric acid, choline, fatty acids, glycerol, glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. It can easily be extracted chemically or mechanically from readily available sources such as soy beans. Lecithin is sold as a food supplement and for medical uses. Its use mainly arises from it being an emulsifier, lubricant and a surfactant. It can be totally metabolized by humans, so is well tolerated by humans and nontoxic when
ingested.
Lecithin is an emollient, which is a softening and soothing agent. Its powerful moisturizing properties help to keep the skin hydrated, making it an excellent additive for restorative creams, or for products designed for mature, dry, or overworked skin. It also has the unique ability to deeply penetrate the skin, and carry substances directly to the cells and the bloodstream. As a result, it may assist the body in absorbing other properties as well. If a product is created with natural and healing ingredients, then the addition of Lecithin would actually bring those beneficial properties to the cellular level.

VITIS VINIFERAVitis Vinifera is the technical name for grape seed extract, which is used in cosmetics and personal care products because of its natural antioxidant properties. Vitis Vinifera has been traditionally used as a wound healer and anti-inflammatory, dating back to European folk healers (Wikipedia). It is now used for its numerous properties that are thought to be beneficial, including as an anti-dandruff, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, antioxidant, and UV absorber ingredient, and is therefore seen in a wide variety of cosmetics and personal care products.Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant ExtractsLatin name for the vines that produce wine grapes. More commonly known as grape seed oil or grape seed extract.
Vitis Vinifera is the technical name for grape seed extract, which is used in cosmetics and personal care products because of its natural antioxidant properties. Vitis Vinifera has been traditionally used as a wound healer and anti-inflammatory, dating back to European folk healers (Wikipedia). It is now used for its numerous properties that are thought to be beneficial, including as an anti-dandruff, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, antioxidant, and UV absorber ingredient, and is therefore seen in a wide variety of cosmetics and personal care products.
According to Lush, a UK-based cosmetics company, Vitis Vinifera can not only help condition and treat the skin, but also acts as a natural preservative. It also contains malic acid, which is considered an AHA (alpha hydroxy acid); "AHA ingredients in cosmetics help exfoliate the top layers of skin, promote moisture restoration, help penetration of other ingredients. These actions will help correct discolouration and improve skin’s texture in general." Although AHAs can exfoliate the top layer of the skin, making it more susceptible to UV damage, Vitis Vinifera is thought to have built in UV absorbers that would negate this harmful side effect (alibaba.com).
Vitis Vinifera is considered a low hazard ingredient by the Cosmetics Database. The EWG only notes data gaps as a concern, and this ingredient is FDA approved for general use. No studies were found that listed negative side effects resulting from the topical use of Vitis Vinifera; however, any AHA should be used in conjunction with sunscreen, as explained in the FDA's warning about the effects of AHAs and sunburns.
GYLCOLIC ACIDis an alpha hydroxy acid; It naturally occurs in sugar cane and is used in cosmetics because of its small molecular structure, easy penetration into the skin and water binding properties. Used in chemical peels and anti-aging skin products; can irritate skin. Glycolic Acid works well as an exfoliater because of its high acidity and easy solubility. When placed on the skin it goes under the damaged upper layers and assists in shifting dead skin cells. The result is a much-smoother skin surface and a more youthful appearance. This removal of dead skin cell build up helps to decongest the skin, encourage cellular renewal and minimise the appearance of pigmentation.
Glycolic Acid, once applied, creates a tingling sensation on the surface of the skin. This is due to the low pH of the Glycolic Acid. All of our home care products utilise a low pH delivery system for fast, effective results. Gylicolic Acid can act as a water-binding agent and, when properly formulated, as an exfoliant. In its capacity as an exfoliant, it can help shed dead skin to renew skin’s surface, visibly softening the signs of aging, particularly from sun damage. Glycolic acid is one of the most effective and well-researched forms of AHA
Exfoliant; pH Adjuster; BUFFERING/
ACETIC ACID, HYDROXY; ACETIC ACID, HYDROXY-; GLYCOLIC ALPHA-HYDROXY ACID; GLYCOLLIC ACID; HYDROXY- ACETIC ACID; HYDROXYACETIC ACID; HYDROXYETHANOIC ACID; 2-HYDROXYACETIC ACID; ACETIC ACID, HYDROXY-; ALPHA-HYDROXYACETIC ACID; HYDROXYACETIC ACID
Glycolic Acid has the ability to radically improve the overall appearance and texture of the skin. The 5 main functions of Glycolic Acid are:
Exfoliation
Glycolic Acid shifts dead skin cells and speeds up cellular renewal.
Hydration
Constant use increases hydration levels in the skin.
Firming
Glycolic Acid helps to soften fine lines, wrinkles, and firm the skin while stimulating collagen.

Transportation
Glycolic Acid, it has the ability to penetrate through the skin with ease, pulling ingredients such as antioxidants, botanicals and peptides deeper into the skin.
Softens pigmentation
Glycolic Acid melts away surface pigment creating a more even toned complexion. It also helps to soften acne scarring.
Glycolic Acid is useful in the treatment of:
• Prematurely ageingand aged skins
• Fine lines and wrinkles
• Dry Thickened Skin
• Hyper Pigmentation
• Ingrown Hairs
• Acne
• Sun Damage
• Open Pores
MYTHS
#1. It thins the skin
Glycolic Acid does not thin the skin. In fact, it’s quite the opposite; it actually increases epidermal thickness and collagen.
#2. You can’t use it constantly
Alpha-H home care products are designed to be used on a regular basis. Depending on the percentage of Glycolic Acid and the problem being treated Glycolic Acid can be used daily. Glycoilc Acid allows other ingredients to penetrate the skin for effective results.
#3. Glycolic Acid causes dryness
Glycolic Acid actually increases hydration levels in the skin. It has the ability to draw moisture into the newly-exfoliated skin surface
ETHYLHEXYL PALMITATEEthylhexyl Palmitate is an ester of 2-ethylhexyl alcohol and palmitic acid.2-ETHYLHEXYL PALMITATE; 2-ETHYLHEXYL ESTER HEXADECANOIC ACID; 2-ETHYLHEXYL ESTER PALMITIC ACID; 2-ETHYLHEXYL HEXADECANOATE; 2-ETHYLHEXYL PALMITATE; ALKYL (14,16,18) 2-ETHYL HEXANOATE; ELFACOS EHP; HEXADECANOIC ACID, 2-ETHYLHEXYL ESTER; HEXADECANOIC ACID, 2ETHYLHEXYL ESTER; OCTYL PALMITATE; PALMITIC ACID, 2-ETHYLHEXYL ESTERFragrance Ingredient; Skin-Conditioning Agent - Emollient; PERFUMINGEthylhexyl Palmitate is an ester of 2-ethylhexyl alcohol and palmitic acid.
HAMAMELIS VIRGINIANA (WITCH HAZEL) WATERIs an aqueous solution containing natural volatileoils obtained by the distillation of twigs, bark and leaves of Hamamelis virginiana. In the United States, Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Water may be used as an active ingredient in OTC drug products.When used as an active drug ingredient, the established name is Witch Hazel. Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Water and Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Leaf Water are made from the plant Hamamelis virginiana. In cosmetics and personal care products, Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Water and Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Leaf Water are used in the formulation of bath products, cleansing products, deodorants, hair conditioners, shampoos, skin care products, eye makeup and aftershave lotions.
In cosmetics and personal care products, Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Water and Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Leaf Water function as a skin conditioning agents. They enhance the appearance of dry or damaged skin and help to reduce flaking and restores the suppleness of skin.
Antioxidants, Sensitizing, Plant Extracts/HAMAMELIS VIRGINIANA WATER; WITCH HAZEL DISTILLATE; WITCH HAZEL WATER; WITCH HAZEL WATER (DISTILLATE)Drug Astringent - Skin Protectant Drugs; Skin-Conditioning Agent - MiscellaneousNo possible skin cancer will occur during the usage. Other possible concern is low to zero
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permits the use of Witch Hazel Extract (from bark, leaves, and twigs) as an astringent in Over-the-Counter (OTC) skin protectant and anorectal drug products. When used as an active ingredient in an OTC drug, the ingredient is named Witch Hazel. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) has deferred evaluation of Witch Hazel because the safety has been assessed by FDA. This deferral of review is according to the provisions of the CIR Procedures.
Scientific Facts: Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Water is obtained from the steam distillation of twigs, bark and leaves of the witch hazel plant, Hamemelis virginiana. Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Leaf Water is obtained from the steam distillation of leaves of the witch hazel plant, Hamemelis virginiana. Witch Hazel Water is produced by steam distillation. The condensate from steam distillation produces two distinct fractions that contain the volatile ingredients from the plant. The water insoluble fraction contains the "oil." The water soluble fraction contains ingredients from the plant that are water soluble.

CAPRYLIC/ CAPRIC TRIGLYCERIDEDerived from coconut oil and glycerin, it’s considered an excellent emollient and skin-replenishing ingredient. It’s included in cosmetics due to its mix of fatty acids that skin can use to replenish its surface and resist moisture loss. Caprylic/capric triglyceride can also function as a thickener, but its chief job is to moisturize and replenish skin. This ingredient’s value for skin is made greater by the fact that it’s considered gentle. A mixed triester derived from coconut oil and glycerin. It comes in the form of an oily liquid, and is sometimes mistakenly referred to as fractionated coconut oil.
Caprylic mainly works as an emollient, dispersing agent and solvent. As an emollient, it both quickly penetrates the surface to condition the skin/hair, and provides a lightweight and non-greasy barrier of lubrication. As a dispersing agent, it helps enhance the delivery of vitamins, pigments and other active ingredients contained in a solution so that they become evenly spread out and fully absorbed by the epidermis. It's oily texture helps thicken cosmetic formulations and provides a slipperiness, which in turn allows for the easy spreadability of solutions and a smooth after-touch. Cosmetic manufacturers highly value this ingredient for its lack of color and odor, as well as for its stability. It possesses such great stability and resistance to oxidation, in fact, that it has an almost indefinite shelf life. You may find this ingredient in personal care products such as facial moisturizer, lipstick, anti-aging serums, sunscreen, foundation, eye cream and lip/eye liner.
* A mixed triester derived from coconut oil and glycerin. It comes in the form of an oily liquid, and is sometimes mistakenly referred to as fractionated coconut oil.
Plant Extracts, Emollients, Texture EnhancerCaprylic mainly works as an emollient, dispersing agent and solvent. As an emollient, it both quickly penetrates the surface to condition the skin/hair, and provides a lightweight and non-greasy barrier of lubrication. As a dispersing agent, it helps enhance the delivery of vitamins, pigments and other active ingredients contained in a solution so that they become evenly spread out and fully absorbed by the epidermis. It's oily texture helps thicken cosmetic formulations and provides a slipperiness, which in turn allows for the easy spreadability of solutions and a smooth after-touch. Cosmetic manufacturers highly value this ingredient for its lack of color and odor, as well as for its stability. It possesses such great stability and resistance to oxidation, in fact, that it has an almost indefinite shelf life. You may find this ingredient in personal care products such as facial moisturizer, lipstick, anti-aging serums, sunscreen, foundation, eye cream and lip/eye liner.The EU Cosmetics Directive allows it to be used in cosmetic and personal care products. The FDA deems caprylic acid (this ingredient's main component) as a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) substance to be used as a food additive. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel has reviewed the safety of caprylic/capric triglycerides and acknowledged that, when absorbed from the digestive tract, they hydrolyzed and the fatty acids broke down and further metabolized to either carbon dioxide or long-chain fatty acids. Tests involving ingestion, injection, skin and eye exposure showed the ingredient to have very low toxicity. Lastly, it did not demonstrate any potential for skin/eye irritation or sensitization.
CAMELLIA SINENSIS LEAFBiologically speaking, a significant amount of scientific evidence points to the antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of green tea. any studies, including those conducted by the American Association for Cancer Research and in the journal Preventative Medicine, have demonstrated how drinking green tea can help prevent the formation of cancerous tumors, in both mice and humans. While there are only limited studies to prove its effects on the skin (Source: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology, and Photomedicine, February 2007, pages 48–56), most skin experts generally recommend green tea as a powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging ingredient.Antioxidants, Plant ExtractsBiologically speaking, a significant amount of scientific evidence points to the antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of green tea. Many studies, including those conducted by the American Association for Cancer Research and in the journal Preventative Medicine, have demonstrated how drinking green tea can help prevent the formation of cancerous tumors, in both mice and humans. While there are only limited studies to prove its effects on the skin (Source: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology, and Photomedicine, February 2007, pages 48–56), most skin experts generally recommend green tea as a powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging ingredient.
The cosmetic and dermatological communities fervently laud green tea, mainly due to the fact that it contains the polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). EGCG polyphenols are widely known for their anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant abilities, and have been shown to inhibit the body's immune suppression and skin cancer induction that typically follows UVB exposure. A 2001 study in the journal Carcinogenesis demonstrated how, after exposure to sunlight, the dermal application of EGCG can effectively reduce the body's oxidative stress and increase its enzyme and amino acid activity (mainly catalase and glutathione).
With regards to its anti-inflammatory effects, a 2003 study published in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistrydemonstrated how green
tea also works to reduce UV induced inflammations (as measured by double skin swellings). It's been shown to be an extremely effective treatment for reducing the redness and irritation associated with Rosacea. Furthermore, recent research suggests that EGCG indirectly cts as a sun-protecting ingredient by quenching the body's UV induced free radicals, in turn preventing the breakdown of collagen and educing the skin's UV damage (Source: Journal of Dermatological Science, December 2005, pages 195–204). In fact, green
tea has been shown to enhance and work synergestically with other UV absorbing ingredients.
There exists far less research to support green tea's ability to diminish the appearance of wrinkles and sagging skin. Considering its well documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, it no doubt can help slow down the development of some of the visual signs of aging. Yet whether green tea can actually reverse some of the damage done and improve the appearance of aging skin, further research is warranted. In a 2005 study, 40 women with substantial photoaging were administered a combination of green tea supplementation and green tea face cream. ON one hand, after 8 weeks their skin showed no visible differences in clinical grading than that of the placebo group. On the other hand, laboratory skin biopsies of the women treated with green tea showed a significant improvement in their elastic tissue content.
While more research is required to prove the ingredient's benefits on mature skin (wrinkles, sagging), there's very little doubt surrounding the preventative anti-aging benefits of green tea, particularly when it is used in conjunction with sunscreen ingredients. Traditionally, the topical application of only high doses of the extract were thought to have subtstantial effects on the skin. Recent research, however, suggests that concentrations as low as .4% can benefit the skin. You may find camellia sinensis leaf extract in virtually avery type of personal care product such as facial moisturizer, cleanser, body lotion, anti-aging treatment, sunscreen, foundation,
shampoo/conditioner, hair dye, rosacea treatment, acne treatment and shaving cream.
HYALURONIC ACIDHyaluronic Acid is one type of acids that will make your skin plump, hydrates skin by drawing in moisturiser from surrounding environment and it also work as the best anti-aging solution. You can say that it contained moisture binding ingredient. This is a good choice of skincare ingredients if you do not have any choice for skincare that is oil free. Some people can just use hyaluronic serum without moisturiser, however for me, I need to use 2 layer of moisturiser after hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid is suitable to be use for all skin types and its very well recommended for dry to very dry skin.
According to Paula Choices, Hyaluronic Acid is a natural substance in skin that has the stunning capacity to attract and hold vast amount of moisture. It work overtime by replenishing skin to enhance a healthy look and feel.
As we grow, our skin also change. Loses the ability to preserve moisture, which resulting to visible loss of firmness, pliability, and plumpness. Hyaluronic acid is the solution to that. The ability to replenish moisture that is crucial for having a skin that look younger and supple.
ALCOHOLSimply alcohol refers to ethanol and it's a pretty controversial ingredient. It has many instant benefits: it's a great solvent, penetration enhancer, creates cosmetically elegant, light formulas, great astringent and antimicrobial. No wonder it's popular in toners and oily skin formulas.

The downside is that it can be very drying if it's in the first few ingredients on an ingredient list.

Some experts even think that regular exposure to alcohol damages skin barrier and causes inflammation though it's a debated opinion.
Other name: Ethanolantimicrobial/antibacterial, solvent, viscosity controlling, astringentAfrican Botanics Infinité Resurfacing Mask Alba Acne Deep Pore Wash

Aromatherapy Associates Mattifying Deep Cleanse Face Mask

Avene Soothing Hydrating Serum COSRX Natural Bha Returning A-Sol

Caudalie Beauty Elixir Cosmedix Refine Rx

Dr Organic Skin Clear Toner

Dr. Jart+ Ceramidin Liquid Etude House Moistfull Collagen Cream

Herbivore Botanicals Moon Fruit Superfruit Night Treatment

Hylamide Booster;Pore Control

Make P:rem Wonderful Me In-Shower Face Pack

Manuka Doctor Apiclear Blemish Cream

Mecca Cosmetica All Set Makeup Illuminating Mist

Nu'trir Nourishing Cleansing Oil PCA Total Strength Serum

Peter Thomas Roth Un-Wrinkle Night

Sesderma Ferulac Liposomal Serum

Tatcha Pure One Step Camellia Cleansing Oil Tatcha Water Cream

Thank You Farmer Sun Project Water Sun Cream Spf 50This Works In Transit Camera Close Up

Ultrasun Anti-Age Spf 50+Zo skin health Brightenex™ 0.5% Retinol

Zo skin health Ossential® Brightalive Non-Retinol Skin Brightener

Zo skin health Rozatrol™ Normalizing Serum
DIMETHICONE
Dimethicone (also called polymethylsiloxane) is a silicon-based polymer used as a lubricant and conditioning agent.DIMETHICONE COPOLYOL; DIMETHYL SILICONE; HIGHLY POLYMERIZED METHYL POLYSILOXANE; METHYL POLYSILOXANE; SILICONE L-45; DC 1664; DIMETHICONE 350; DIMETICONE; DOW CORNING 1664; MIRASIL DM 20; VISCASIL 5MAntifoaming Agent; Skin-Conditioning Agent - Occlusive; Skin Protectant; EMOLLIENT; SKIN CONDITIONING; SKIN PROTECTING
The ingredient was found to soothe and protect the skin of individuals suffering from sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), and even prevented the formation of ICD in some cases. Further tests have gone on to demonstrate dimethicone's effectiveness in treating contact hand dermatitis, and suggest that the protective barrier, which the ingredient forms on the epidermis, can effectively prevent skin infections. In addition, it works to reduce redness caused by rosacea and can function as an anti-inflammatory. For this reason, it is often used in conjunction with more irritating ingredients, particularly UV absorbers like titanium oxide and zinc oxide.
The cosmetic industry values this ingredient for its powerful ability to keep the skin adequately lubricated, even during the driest and harshest winter weather. As a non-comedogenic ingredient, it provides a significant amount of emollience and coverage to the skin, without adding any heaviness. This, coupled with the fact that it can enhance the light refractability of other ingredients, makes it an excellent candidate for both color and sunscreen cosmetics. You can find dimethicone in practically every personal care product out there (especially skin care related ones), including facial moisturizer, body lotion, sunscreen, anti-aging serum, eye cream, foundation, facial powder, eye shadow, conditioner and hair dye.
You will find in ingredient list of lip matte, Foundation, primer, conditioner, or skincare.The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved its use as a "skin protectant" ingredient in over-the-counter (OTC) drug products. Furthermore, the Cosmetic Ingredient review (CIR) Expert Panel reviewed the data surrounding dimethicone, and assessed it as safe to use in personal care products. They determined that because of the large molecular weight of silicone based polymers such as dimethicone, it would be very unlikely for it to penetrate past the surface of the skin.

BUTYROSPERMUM PARKII
A botanical ingredient * Derived from the seeds of the African Shea Tree. Also known as Shea butter. See our article Shea Yes to the Real Thing
Acts as a skin conditioning agent and viscosity (thickness) increasing agent. Its function as a dermal conditioner is two fold. Firstly, it helps retain moisture and lessen the loss of water by forming a barrier on the skin's surface. Secondly, it also works to reduce the appearance of rough patches and dry flakes on the skin. Many prefer this ingredient as a moisturizer because of its content of unsaponifiable fats- meaning that, unlike other fatty oils, it does not turn into soap when in the presence of a potent alkali, thus retaining its moisturizing abilities.
* A botanical ingredient
* Derived from the seeds of the African Shea Tree. Also known as Shea butter.
Acts as a skin conditioning agent and viscosity (thickness) increasing agent. Its function as a dermal conditioner is two fold. Firstly, it helps retain moisture and lessen the loss of water by forming a barrier on the skin's surface. Secondly, it also works to reduce the appearance of rough patches and dry flakes on the skin. Many prefer this ingredient as a moisturizer because of its content of unsaponifiable fats- meaning that, unlike other fatty oils, it does not turn into soap when in the presence of a potent alkali, thus retaining its moisturizing abilities.
In addition, the moisturizers in shea butter are the same as those produced by the sebaceous glands of the skin. In fact, because its structure and function resembles that of the lipid content of skin, shea butter is considered to be a Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF). As an NMF, it helps keep the intercellular structure of the epidermis intact, and effectively keeps bacteria out, facilitates the skin's healing process, prevents dermal irritation and regenerates the skin.
It's particularly useful for those looking to improve the appearance of dry skin, or those having to combat cold winter weather. It also works as an anti-inflammatory, helping to soothe itchy, irritated or sunburnt skin. Best of all, it naturally absorbs UVB rays to protect the skin from the sun, and has antioxidant properties as potent as those of green tea and olive. You can find butyrospermum parkii (shea butter) in a diverse number of cosmetic products such as body lotion, facial moisturizer, hair balm, lipstick, bar soap, eye cream, sunscreen and hand cream.
Like most other botanical ingredients, Shea Butter is generally considered to be mild and safe to use topically on the skin. Because some people are allergic to nuts (including the nuts from a shea tree), the FDA requires all food containing this ingredient to be properly labeled.
ALUMINAAlumina is the name used for inorganic compound aluminium oxide.ACTIVATED ALUMINA; ALUMINA, ACTIVATED; ALUMINA, CALCINED; ALUMINA, TABULAR; ALUMINIUM OXIDE; ALUMINUM OXIDE; ALUMINUM OXIDE (AL2O3) ; ALUMINUM SESQUIOXIDE; ALUMINUM TRIOXIDE; CALCINED ALUMINA; TABULAR ALUMINAAbrasive; Anticaking Agent; Bulking Agent; Opacifying Agent; ABSORBENT; VISCOSITY CONTROLLING
ASCORBYL PALMITATEA non-acidic molecule made from ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) and palmitic acid (fatty acid). Also known as Vitamin C Ester.
A preservative with antioxidant properties, helping blend vitamins A, C & D into a suspension. It’s an effective collagen builder and free-radical scavenging ingredient essential to healthy skin. With the advantage of being lipid (fat) soluble, it can penetrate the skin and deliver antioxidants faster than the water soluble forms of Vitamin C. This, in turn, helps prevent cellular aging by inhibiting the cross-linking of collagen, oxidation of proteins, and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, it’s been shown to work synergistically with the antioxidant Vitamin E. Studies have also show it to be more stable than L-ascorbic acid. As a preservative, it’s mainly used in makeup products, but recent discovery of its superior antioxidant properties has helped it become an active ingredient in a variety of skincare products such as suncreens, lotions/crèmes, anti-aging treatments and serums.
A preservative with antioxidant properties, helping blend vitamins A, C & D into a suspension. It’s an effective collagen builder and free-radical scavenging ingredient essential to healthy skin. With the advantage of being lipid (fat) soluble, it can penetrate the skin and deliver antioxidants faster than the water soluble forms of Vitamin C. This, in turn, helps prevent cellular aging by inhibiting the cross-linking of collagen, oxidation of proteins, and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, it’s been shown to work synergistically with the antioxidant Vitamin E. Studies have also show it to be more stable than L-ascorbic acid. As a preservative, it’s mainly used in makeup products, but recent discovery of its superior antioxidant properties has helped it become an active ingredient in a variety of skincare products such as suncreens, lotions/crèmes, anti-aging treatments and serums.The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel has acknowledged the potential benefits associated with antioxidants such as Vitamin C.However, because Ascorbyl palmitate is fat soluble and easily penetrates the skin, they’ve recommended that lower concentrations be used in leave-on formulations. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recognized it a Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) chemical preservative.
RETINYL PALMITATECombination of retinol (pure vitamin A) and the fatty acid palmitic acid. Research has shown it to be an effective antioxidant when applied to skin. You may be surprised to learn that retinyl palmitate is found naturally in our skin, where it works as an antioxidant, particularly in regard to helping protect skin from UV light exposure--though it does not replace the need for sunscreen.
Retinyl palmitate is the the ester of retinol (vitamin A) combined with palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid and a major component of palm oil. It is not considered to be the same ingredient as retinol, although it is converted to retinol, and then to the active component of retinoic acid once it is absorbed by the skin after being topically applied. It belongs to the family of chemical compounds known as retinoids and is one of the most important vitamins for the appearance of the skin because of its small molecular structures. These tiny molecules have the ability to penetrate the outer layers of the skin and work to repair the lower layers where collagen and elastin reside.
Reports that retinyl palmitate is not a safe ingredient are false. They’re based on a study from nearly 20 years ago that has never been reproduced or tested under real-life conditions such as how people use sunscreens that contain this ingredient. In addition, to date, there is no scientific evidence that retinyl palmitate is a carcinogen in humans. The safety of retinyl palmitate is supported by several accredited organizations and their opinions are widely available online. If you still have concerns, we encourage you to research the topic further.
Antioxidants, Skin-Restoring, Vitamins: Retinyl palmitate is the the ester of retinol (vitamin A) combined with palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid and a major component of palm oil. It is not considered to be the same ingredient as retinol, although it is converted to retinol, and then to the active component of retinoic acid once it is absorbed by the skin after being topically applied. It belongs to the family of chemical compounds known as retinoids and is one of the most important vitamins for the appearance of the skin because of its small molecular structures. These tiny molecules have the ability to penetrate the outer layers of the skin and work to repair the lower layers where collagen and elastin reside (source).
Retinyl palmitate is considered a less irritating form of retinol, and a gentler ingredient on sensitive skin. However, the reason retinyl palmitate may cause less irritation is because of the lengthier process that must take place for it to be converted into retinoic acid (otherwise known as tretinoin), the active compound that creates the cell regeneration and exfoliation action within the skin. Retinyl palmitate converts into retinol (or vitamin A), which in turn is converted into retinoic acid by specialized enzymes in the skin. Retinoic acid facilitates communication between cells, encouraging aging cells to continue their renewal process, and regenerate collagen and elastin to prevent the appearance of aging skin, wrinkles, and fine lines. It is also effective at producing new, healthy skin cells to replace skin previously damaged by acne (source). However, retinol cannot communicate with a cell until it has been broken down into retinoic acid (source). Once this breakdown has occurred, communication begins and the cells' turnover rate increases, thus speeding up the production of collagen.
Retinyl palmitate is considered an exfoliator (albeit more gentle than pure retinol), and its effect of repeatedly shedding the upper dermal layer forces the skin to produce new cells. There is some concern that at the Hayflick Limit (the number of times skin can regenerate itself before reaching its limit), the aging process will actually accelerate because cells are unable to multiply indefinitely.
Retinyl palmitate is a controversial ingredient because of its potentially hazardous side effects. Although it has many proven benefits, the Cosmetics Database rates it as a moderate hazard ingredient. It warns of potential side effects including cancer, developmental and reproductive toxicity, violations, restrictions and warnings, cellular level changes, and organ system toxicity. Retinyl palmitate has been shown to produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death, and it may be implicated in cardiovascular disease. It has caused reproductive effects at low doses in one or more animal studies, and there is limited evidence of cancer and skin toxicity, although it has been shown to be easily absorbed into the skin.
Retinyl palmitate is considered a gentle ingredient, and very few warnings of irritation exist. However, because it converts to retinol in the skin, it is important to note that retinol, (along with tretinoin) can cause severe skin reactions, including peeling, redness, scaling, itching, and burning (source). Formulas containing this ingredient, prescribed or OTC, are expected to cause some irritation upon use, although the irritation should decrease after approximately two weeks of continued application. It is also known to cause thinning of the skin, and therefore should not be used in conjunction with hair waxing. Because retinol greatly increases the risk of extreme sunburn, care should be taken (shade, sunscreen, etc.) to protect treated skin from overexposure to ultraviolet light.
Since 2009, the FDA has been reviewing data from several studies on a potential link between retinyl palmitate and cancer risks. The National Toxicology Program released a report in January 2011 based on a study with mice, concluding that retinyl palmitate and retinoic acid become carcinogenic in sunlight (source). Subsequently, the EWG issued a statement recommending that manufacturers remove Retinyl Palmitate from all products used on sun-exposed skin. According to FDA scientists, retinyl palmitate breaks down in sunlight to photomutagenic compounds, forming free radicals in the presence of UVA and UVB radiation. However, the FDA's final assessment has not yet been made public.
XANTHAN GUMAccording to Dermaxime.com, Xanthan Gum is used as a binder, emulsion stabilizer, emulsifying surfactant, as well as an aqueous viscosity increasing agent in cosmetics and personal care products because of its capability to hold water, enhance freeze-thaw
stability, and improve shelf life and help with the stabilization of a product. A polysaccharide derived from glucose or sucrose (sugars), Xanthan Gum is able to increase the viscosity of liquids even when used at less than 1% concentration. It is also thought to have skin-conditioning properties.
: According to Dermaxime.com, Xanthan Gum is used as a binder, emulsion stabilizer, emulsifying surfactant, as well as an aqueous viscosity increasing agent in cosmetics and personal care products because of its capability to hold water, enhance freeze-thaw stability, and improve shelf life and help with the stabilization of a product. A polysaccharide derived from glucose or sucrose (sugars), Xanthan Gum is able to increase the viscosity of liquids even when used at less than 1% concentration. It is also thought to have skin-conditioning properties. Although it is not considered an emulsifier, Xanthan Gum prevents oilseparation in formulas and helps to suspend particles. This ingredient thickensformulas and keeps them homogenous in their containers, but still allowsformulas to become thin if shaken, allowing for an easier dispersion. After aformula is stable again, it becomes thick (Wikipedia).The Cosmetics Database considers Xanthan Gum a low hazard ingredient, and it is "Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful," although there are large data gaps in available information regarding thisingredient's use as a cosmetic additive. According to WiseGeek.com "Despitethe use of bacteria during processing, xanthan gum itself is not generally harmful to human skin or digestive systems, though some individuals may findthey are allergic to it." People with Xanthan Gum allergies may experience intestinal gripes, diarrhea, temporary high blood pressure, and migraine headaches, although these symptoms are generally thought to occur afteringestion, not topical application.
DEHYDROACETIC ACIDA synthetic preservative used in amounts of 0.6% or less where it’s proven to be safe and effective. Dehydroacetic acid is characterized as a white to cream crystalline powder. Sometimes its salt form (known as sodium dehydroacetate) is used, as it is more soluble in certain types of cosmetic formulas. Dehydroacetic acid is most effective on fungi.
* A cyclic ketone that comes in the form of an odorless, white powder.
A fungicide and bactericide predominantly used as a preservative in cosmetics. It works by killing off and preventing the growth of microorganisms that contribute to a product's decay. It can be found in personal care products such as eye shadow,
facial moisturizer/lotion, blush, anti-aging treatment, lip gloss, mascara, facial powder, cleanser and exfoliant.
* A cyclic ketone that comes in the form of an odorless, white powder.
Preservatives: A fungicide and bactericide predominantly used as a preservative in cosmetics. It works by killing off and preventing the growth of microorganisms that contribute to a product's decay. It can be found in personal care products such as eye shadow, facial moisturizer/lotion, blush, anti-aging treatment, lip gloss, mascara, facial powder, cleanser and exfoliant.The FDA permits this ingredient to be used as an indirect food additive for use in adhesives. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of dehydroacetic acid and concluded that it is safe to use in cosmetic products. Clinical tests showed little to no evidence regarding the ingredient's toxicity and potential for irritation. The EU Cosmetics Directive also permits this ingredient to be used in personal care products at a maximum concentration of 0.6%.
HYDROGENATED RETINOLSkin-softening agent derived from didecene, which is a hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Examples of common hydrocarbons include mineral oil, petroleum, and paraffin wax.Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Texture Enhancer
GLYCERINAlso called glycerol or glycerine, glycerin is present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or vegetable. It can be derived from natural substances by hydrolysis of fats and by fermentation of sugars; it also can be synthetically manufactured. Glycerin is a skin-replenishing and restoring ingredient, meaning it is a substance found naturally in skin. In that respect it is one of the many substances in skin that helps maintain a healthy look and feel, defending against dryness.
Humectants such as glycerin have always raised the question as to whether or not they take toomuch water from skin. Pure glycerin (100% concentration) on skin is not helpful and can actually be drying. So, a major drawback of any humectant (including glycerin) when used in pure form is that it can increase water loss by attracting water from the lower layers of skin into the surface layers of skin,
where the water can easily be lost to the environment--that doesn’t help dry skin or any skin type. For this reason, glycerin and humectants in general are always combined with other ingredients to soften skin. Glycerin combined with other emollients and/or oils is a fundamental cornerstone of most moisturizers.
Research shows that a combination of ingredients, including glycerin, dimethicone, petrolatum,antixoxidants, fatty acids, lecithin, among many others, are excellent for helping replenish skin.
METHYL TRIMETHICONEA very light, volatile silicone (it evaporates from the skin rather than absorbs into it) that's similar to super commonly used Cyclopentasiloxane but it dries even faster when applied to the skin.solvent, siliconeBelif Aqua Bomb, Glossier Invisible Shield Spf 35
MICAMica is a naturally occurring mineral dust often used in makeup foundations, as filler in cement and asphalt, and as insulation material in electric cables. Workers in cosmetic manufacturing factories are at high risk of mica exposure through inhalation. Mica minerals are often used as color additives in cosmetics. They also have reflective properties, allowing for a shimmery effect in mineral foundations. Long term inhalation of mica poses a health risk to workers, specifically those working in muscovite (the most common form of mica) mills and other occupations such as agriculture and construction work.
This what will most people asked if the makeup will be mineral base? Because if it’s mineral base chances are it will make the skin prone to acne and pimples because the ingredients is really comedogenic. If you found yourself having using new blush on and then you see pimples in your face chances are it contained MICA as mineral. For mineral makeup, there is no indication that I will contained MICA, therefore I think that MICA is one form of Mineral. TALC are always be found in Mineral makeup.
The different between Mineral makeup and traditional makeup is? (source: http://www.webmd.boots.com) Mineral make-up is made up of minerals such as iron oxides, talc, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. They are ground and milled or broken into very tiny particles to create the make-up.
Traditional make up uses preservatives like parabens, chemical dyes and fragrances. Mineral make-up leaves these out.
Makeup products, shingles, wallpaper, insulation, cement and asphalt. For cosmetics: Highlighter, setting or translucent powder, eyeshadow, blush on (any type of powder cosmetic may contain MICA)Irritation: Several occupational exposure case studies document workers from muscovite/mica mills, construction sites and rubber factories developing respiratory problems after being exposed to mica over the course of several years. Long-term inhalation of mica dust may cause lung scarring which leads to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, weakness, and weight loss.
Workers in cosmetic manufacturing factories, mines, mills, agriculture and construction work are mostly expose to this ingredients due to their occupation. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has set recommended exposure limits and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set permissible exposure for an average workday.

NIACINAMIDE
Also known as vitamin B3 and nicotinic acid, niacinamide is a very effective skin-restoring ingredient that offers multiple benefits for aging skin. Among these benefits is the ability to visibly improve the appearance of enlarged pores, uneven skin tone, fine lines, dullness, and a weakened skin surface. Niacinamide can also mitigate the damage environmental attack can cause, and is stable in the presence of heat and light.
What about using vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and niacinamide in the same product or applied at the same time in separate products?
You might have read or heard that niacinamide and vitamin C shouldn’t be used at the same time, whether found together in the same product or applied separately one after the other. Rest assured, this combination is fine and is in fact quite beneficial!
The research this misconception is based on was conducted in the 1960s; the forms of niacinamide and vitamin C used in this study were not stabilized--although niacinamide itself is very stable. The base of the formula used in this study was also far different than today’s sophisticated skincare formulas. Today, cosmetic chemists know how to combine niacinamide and vitamin C in the ideal base formulas that enhance their compatibility.
The other common concern we’ve seen about combining these two ingredients has to do with the pH range. The concern is that the acidic environment ascorbic acid needs to be most effective will cause niacinamide will convert to nicotinic acid, a form that can be sensitizing, possibly inducing redness. Good news: This conversion process would only happen under conditions of the formula being exposed to very high heat for a long period of time. This would not apply to layering skincare products or to heat conditions that occur during manufacturing, transport, and storage of cosmetic products that contain niacinamide and ascorbic acid.
What all of this means is that you can use or layer products containing both niacinamide and vitamin C knowing that they will not render each other any less effective. Each of these ingredients on its own can help to address dark spots, uneven skin tone, wrinkles, loss of firmness, and dullness. When used together, they become even more of a powerhouse! This duo will help give you an even better chance at achieving a radiant, smooth, even, younger-looking complexion.
Niacimide is Vitamin B3 that is part of essential nutrient for our skin and body, for sure you know about the body nutrient. You eat red meat, it contained B3 its good for body. So for skin:
#1 Boosting the immunity of your skin.
There are cells in your skin known as Langerhans cells. They are responsible for the protection and repair mechanisms of your skin. They are shy little guys, and when you expose your skin to the sun, especially when you burn your skin, they temporarily retreat leaving the skin without its natural immunity against invading microbes or the safeguards against the activity of precancerous lesions.
#2 Improves epidermal barrier performance.
Everything about your skin is better when the epidermal lipid barrier is functioning at its peak. Your lipid barrier helps retain moisture, keeps it hydrated for longer and will protect your skin from the harshness of the environment, regardless of the time of year. Niacinamide increases the production of ceramides (an essential component of your lipid barrier), keeping the skin strong and preventing Trans Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL).
#3 Improves redness and blotchiness in the skin.
With an improved epidermal lipid barrier, the skin’s natural ability to protect itself from external aggressors becomes vastly improved. Over time and with a daily application of a Niacinamide formulation, improvements in skin structure will reduce redness, blotchiness and sensitivity brought about by exposure to the environment due to a poorly functioning barrier.
#4 Regulated oil flow.
When your skin retains its natural moisture with a well-functioning lipid barrier, the natural oil flow of the skin becomes controlled. So, if you have oily skin, rather than trying to wash it scrupulously away and exacerbate the problem, consider topically applied Niacinamide as an essential factor in getting any excessive oil flow under control.
#5 Protects skin from infrared light.
Niacinamide protects the skin from the infrared heat of the sun. Along with the damaging effects of UV exposure, infrared activates free radicals and stimulates an overproduction of pigmented cells, and if your pigmentation is hormonal, heat is a big problem. Niacinamide protects the skin from heat.
#6 Hyper-pigmentation.
The transfer of pigment (melanosomes) from your melanocytes to the surrounding skin of your epidermis is known as a tan. However, over time, this activity becomes dysfunctional, and many of us end up with uneven, blotchy pigmentation rather than a golden tan. If your skin has become susceptible to hyperpigmentation, then Niacinamide will assist in the reduction of uneven pigmentation by slowing down the transfer of melanin to your skin’s epidermis. Including this smart ingredient into any hyper-pigmentation treatment plan is a must do!
#7 Minimise lines and wrinkles.
Niacinamide boosts collagen production. Along with the improvement of the skin’s lipid barrier comes an increase in cell differentiation which contributes to better synthesis and formation of collagen and elastin. Music to my ears!!
#8 Dull and sallow skin.
While many antioxidants prevent damage caused by stress and age’s, Niacinamide goes one step further and reverses the visible signs brought about by the onslaught. As time goes by and with the constant exposure to free radicals and glycation, the skin can appear dull and sallow with a sad loss of radiance. You don’t want that! Niacinamide as an antioxidant reduces the negative impact of oxidative stress and improves the skin’s ability to fight back. You definitely want that!


PALMITOYL HYDROXYPROPYLTRIMONIUM AMYLOPECTIN/GLYCERIN CROSSPOLYMERLittle information is available regarding Palmitoyl Hydroxypropyltrimonium Amylopectin/Glycerin Crosspolymer. It is noted as an emollient and skin conditioning agent, used to act as a lubricant on the skin's surface and give the skin a soft and smooth appearance, according to research. The Cosmetic Database defines Palmitoyl Hydroxypropyltrimonium Amylopectin/Glycerin Crosspolymer as a "palmitic acidester of a polymer of the hydroxypropyltrimonium derivative of Amylopectin (q.v.) crosslinked with glycerin." Glycerin is widely used as a humectant and lubricant in beauty products and cosmetics.
emollientLittle information is available regarding Palmitoyl Hydroxypropyltrimonium Amylopectin/Glycerin Crosspolymer. It is noted as an emollient and skin conditioning agent, used to act as a lubricant on the skin's surface and give the skin a soft and smooth appearance, according to research. The Cosmetic Database defines Palmitoyl Hydroxypropyltrimonium Amylopectin/Glycerin Crosspolymer as a "palmitic acidester of a polymer of the hydroxypropyltrimonium derivative of Amylopectin (q.v.) crosslinked with glycerin." Glycerin is widely used as a humectant and lubricant in beauty products and cosmetics.
The EWG rates Palmitoyl Hydroxypropyltrimonium Amylopectin/Glycerin Crosspolymer as 100% safe and no studies were found that noted any adverse reactions, side effects, or safety measures regarding the use of it in beauty products or cosmetics.
GLYCERYL STEARATEA naturally derived fatty acid, most often used as an emulsifier
Glyceryl Stearate is derived from palm kernel, vegetable or soy oil and is also found naturally in the human body. It acts as a lubricant on the skin’s surface, which gives the skin a soft and smooth appearance (Source). It easily penetrates the skin and slows the loss of water from the skin by forming a barrieron the skin’s surface. It has been shown to protect skin from free-radical damage as well.
Glyceryl Stearate is derived from palm kernel, vegetable or soy oil and is also found naturally in the human body. It acts as a lubricant on the skin’s surface, which gives the skin a soft and smooth appearance (Source). It easily penetrates the skin and slows the loss of water from the skin by forming a barrier on the skin’s surface. It has been shown to protect skin from free-radical damage as well.
Chemically, Glyceryl Stearate is used to stabilize products, decrease water evaporation, make products freeze-resistant, and keep them from forming surface crusts. Glyceryl Stearate reduces the greasiness of oils used in certain cosmetics and personal care products, ccording to CosmeticsInfo.org.
What Is It? Glyceryl Stearate and Glyceryl Stearate SE are esterification products of glycerin and stearic acid. Glyceryl Stearate is a white or cream-colored wax-like solid. Glyceryl Stearate SE is a "Self-Emulsifying" form of Glyceryl Stearate that also contains a small amount of sodium and or potassium stearate. In cosmetics and personal care products, Glyceryl Stearate is widely used and can be found in lotions, creams, powders, skin cleansing products, makeup bases and foundations, mascara, eye shadow, eyeliner, hair conditioners and rinses, and suntan and sunscreen products.
Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products? Glyceryl Stearate acts as a lubricant on the skin's surface, which gives the skin a soft and smooth appearance. It also slows the loss of water from the skin by forming a barrier on the skin's surface. Glyceryl Stearate, and Glyceryl Stearate SE help to form emulsions by reducing the surface tension of the substances to be emulsified.
Scientific Facts: Glyceryl Stearate is made by reacting glycerin with stearic acid, a fatty acid obtained from animal and vegetable fats and oils. Glyceryl Stearate SE is produced by reacting an excess of stearic acid with glycerin. The excess stearic acid is then reacted with potassium and/or sodium hydroxide yielding a product that contains Glyceryl Stearate as well as potassium stearate and/or sodium stearate.
Scientific Facts: Glyceryl Stearate is made by reacting glycerin with stearic acid, a fatty acid obtained from animal and vegetable fats and oils. Glyceryl Stearate SE is produced by reacting an excess of stearic acid with glycerin. The excess stearic acid is then reacted with potassium and/or sodium hydroxide yielding a product that contains Glyceryl Stearate as well as potassium stearate and/or sodium stearate.
PARAFINNUMLiquid paraffin is formulated into skin care products to create a protective layer on the skin that helps retain hydration. It creates a greasiness, but smooth feeling on the skin, which give sensation of moisture.

Moisture retention is an important factor in skin care, which is often overlooked. The skin has a natural barrier that prevents moisture loss and helps keep the skin supple. Some individuals, experience a weakening of barrier due to genetic factors, aging of the skin, and damage from UV radiation and harsh weather. liquid paraffin is always being found in cream form and it’s believed to help the skin retain moisture.
PHENOXYTHANOLCommon cosmetics preservative that’s considered one of the least sensitizing for use in formulations. It does not release formaldehyde. Phenoxyethanol is approved worldwide (including in Japan and in the EU) for use in all types of water-based cosmetics, up to a 1% concentration. The safety of phenoxyethanol has been assessed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel several times. This group evaluated the foundational scientific data plus the newer relevant data, and concluded that phenoxyethanol is safe as a cosmetic ingredient. Interestingly, although the phenoxyethanol used in skincare products is almost always synthetic, this chemical occurs naturally in green tea.
In short, phenoxyethanol is considered a safe and effective preservative when used in amounts approved for use in leave-on or rinse-off cosmetics products.
Preservatives. Fragrance;2-HYDROXYETHYL PHENYL ETHER; 2-PHENOXY- ETHANOL; 2-PHENOXYETHANOL; 2-PHENOXYETHYL ALCOHOL; ETHANOL, 2-PHENOXY-; ETHANOL, 2PHENOXY; ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOPHENYL ETHER; PHENOXYTOL; 1-HYDROXY-2-PHENOXYETHANE; 2-FENOXYETHANOL (CZECH) ; 2-PHENOXYETHANOLMoisturizer, eye shadow, foundation, sunscreen, conditioner, mascara, eye liner, shampoo, lip gloss, concealer, body wash, hand cream, blush, hair color, hair spray, lip balm, lotion, nail polish, baby wipes, baby lotions and soaps, soap (liquid and bar), shaving cream, deodorant, HEALTH CONCERNS: Allergies, nervous system effects (infants).
VULNERABLE POPULATIONS: Individuals allergic to phenoxyethanol and breast-feeding infants.
REGULATIONS: The European Economic Community (EEC) Cosmetics Derivative and the Cosmetics Regulation of the European Union approved phenoxyethanol in concentrations up to one percent.
HOW TO AVOID: Infants should not be exposed to cosmetic products containing Phenoxyethanol. If you are allergic, read labels and avoid personal care products and vaccines with phenoxyethanol and since parabens may enhance the allergic effects of phenoxyethanol, skip products containing both chemicals. If you are not allergic, phenoxyethanol is a relatively safe preservative in regard to chronic health effects.
PHENYL TRIMETHICONEUsed in cosmetics and beauty products as an anti-foaming agent, hair conditioning agent, and skin-conditioning agent (Cosmetic Database). It reduces the tendency of formulas to generate foam when shaken, and increases hair’s body, suppleness, and sheen, by improving the texture of hair that has been damaged by chemical treatment, according to CosmeticsInfo.org. It also slows the loss of water from the skin by forming a barrier on the skin’s surface. This ingredients is safe for skin.
EMOLLIENTNice ingredients that make your skin soft, smooth and lovely.
DIMETHICONE CROSSPOLYMERIn cosmetics and personal care products, Dimethicone Crosspolymer, Dimethicone Vinyl/Dimethicone Crosspolymer and Vinyl Dimethicone/Methicone Silsesquioxane Crosspolymer all function as viscosity increasing agents - nonaqueous. Dimethicone Crosspolymer also functions as a dispersing agent - nonsurfactant, a emulsion stabilizer and a hair fixative.


DIMETHICONOL
Dimethiconol is a silicone based polymer that resembles Dimethicone, except that molecules of Dimethiconol end with hydroxyl (-OH) groups. Dimethiconol derivatives that may be also be used in cosmetic products include Dimethiconol Arginine, Dimethiconol Beeswax, Dimethiconol Behenate, Dimethiconol Cysteine, Dimethiconol Meadowfoamate, Dimethiconol Methionine, Dimethiconol Panthenol, Dimethiconol Stearate, Dimethiconol/Silsesquioxane Copolymer, Trimethylsiloxysilicate/Dimethiconol Crosspolymer and Acrylates/Dimethiconol Acrylate Copolymer.
In cosmetics and personal care products, Dimethiconol and its derivatives are used in the formulation of a wide range of cosmetic and personal care products including cosmetic creams and lotions, suntan products, bath soaps, lipstick, shampoo and hair care products. The most widely used ingredient in this group is Dimethiconol.
Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?
The following functions have been reported for these ingredients.
Antifoaming agent -- Dimethiconol
Antistatic agent -- Dimethiconol/Silsesquioxane Copolymer
Film former -- Dimethiconol/Silsesquioxane Copolymer, Trimethylsiloxysilicate/Dimethiconol Crosspolymer, Acrylates/Dimethiconol Acrylate Copolymer
Hair conditioning agents -- Dimethiconol Arginine, Dimethiconol Cysteine, Dimethiconol Methionine, Dimethiconol Panthenol, Dimethiconol/Silsesquioxane Copolymer
Hair fixative -- Dimethiconol/Silsesquioxane Copolymer
Skin-conditioning agent -- emollient -- Dimethiconol, Dimethiconol Meadowfoamate
Skin-conditioning agent -- miscellaneous - Dimethiconol/Silsesquioxane Copolymer
Skin-conditioning agent -- occlusive -- Dimethiconol Beeswax, Dimethiconol Behenate, Dimethiconol Stearate
Viscosity increasing agent -- nonaqueous - Trimethylsiloxysilicate/Dimethiconol Crosspolymer

Silicon, the backbone of Dimethiconol, is a common element in the earth. Silicon, like carbon can form polymers, consisting of chains of silicon atoms. Polymers of silicon with oxygen, hydrogen and carbon are called silicones. Dimethiconol is a mixture of siloxane polymers referred to as polydimethylsiloxane terminated with hydroxyl (-OH) groups. Dimethiconol can be combined with other molecules, such as the amino acids (arginine, cysteine and methionine) or fatty acids (behenic acid, stearic fatty acids from meadow foam seed oil) or other compounds to form derivatives of Dimethiconol that are useful as cosmetic ingredients.
MARISA SAL (SEA SALT)Can be effective as a topical scrub, but if left on skin, it can increase the risk of a sensitized reaction.Scrub Agents, Sensitizing
CYCLOPENTASILOXANEIt's a super commonly used silicone that is water-thin and does not absorb into the skin but evaporates from it (called volatile silicone). Similar to other silicones it gives skin and hair a silky, smooth feel. It's often combined with the heavier dimethicone as the two together form a water resistant, breathable protective barrier on the skin without a negative tacky feel.emollient, solvent, siliconeCan be found in the product listed below:
ACM Duolys C.E. 15% Vitamin C
Australian Gold Botanical Spf 50 Tinted Facial Lotion
Avene Soothing Hydrating Serum Belif Aqua Bomb
Bioderma Hydrabio Creme
Bioderma Hydrabio Perfecteur Spf 30
Bioderma Photoderm Leb Spf 30
Bioderma Photoderm Max Aquafluide Teinte Claire Spf 50+
Canmake Mermaid Skin Gel Uv Spf50
Cremorlab T.E.N. Cremor Cleansing Gel Oil
Dr Sebagh Luminous Glow Cream Complexion Perfector
Dr. Jackson's 01 Day Cream
Dr. Jart+ Ceramidin Liquid
EltaMD Am Therapy Facial Moisturizer
EltaMD Uv Clear Broad-Spectrum Spf 46
Etude House Moistfull Collagen Cream
Etude House Sunprise Dust Block Spf 50+/Pa+++
Farmacy Green Screen Spf 30
First Aid Beauty Eye Duty Triple Remedy Am Gel Cream
GLAMGLOW Thirstymud™ Hydrating Treatment
Glossier Moisturizing Moon Mask Heliocare 360° Mineral Fluid Spf 50
Heliocare Advanced Spf 50 Gel Hylamide Booster
Pore ControlHylamide Ha Blur Indeed Laboratories Eysilix Instant Eye Rescue
Invisible Zinc Environmental Skin Protector Spf30+Klairs Mid-Day Blue Sun Lotion Spf 40 Pa++
Klairs Rich Moist Soothing Cream
Lashfood Conditioning Instant Eye Makeup Remover
Mecca Cosmetica Lip De-Luscious Treatment
Mecca Cosmetica To Save Face Superscreen Spf 50+
Medik8 Retinol 3 Tr
Missha Time Revolution Night Repair New Science Activator Ampoule Mask
Murad City Skin Age Defense Broad Spectrum Spf 50 Pa++++
NIOD Hydration Vaccine NIOD Photography Fluid NIOD Survival Spf 30
Nars Sheer Glow Foundation
Neogen White Truffle Laycure Oil Stick
Neutrogena Make-Up Remover Cleansing Towelettes
Paula's Choice Calm Redness Relief 1% Bha Lotion Exfoliant
Paula's Choice Gentle Touch Makeup Remover
Paula's Choice Skin Balancing Invisible Finish Moisture Gel
Paula's Choice Skin Recovery Super Antioxidant Concentrate Serum With Retinol
Perricone MD No Foundation Foundation
Peter Thomas Roth Professional Strength 3% Retinoid Plus
Purid Refreshing Brightening Serum
Pyunkang Yul Nutrition Cream
QLABO Collagenerous Advanced Youth Rejuvenator
SkinMedica Vitamin C+E Complex
Tatcha Indigo Soothing Recovery Cream
The Hero Project Double Blur Skin Perfector
The Ordinary High-Spreadability Fluid Primer
The Ordinary Retinol 1%
The Ordinary Serum Foundation Uncover Moisturizer
Uncover Suncare Spf 30 Zelens Intense Defence Antioxidant Serum
Zelens Z Lumious Brightening Serum Zo skin health Brightenex™ 0.5% Retinol
Zo skin health Ossential Advanced Radical Night Repair
Zo skin health Ossential® Brightalive Non-Retinol Skin Brightener
Zo skin health Ossential® Daily Power Defense
innisfree Orchid Enriched Cream

SODIUM BICARBONATESodium Carbonate is a grayish-white crystalline powder. Sodium Sesquicarbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate are white crystalline solids. Baking soda is another name for Sodium Bicarbonate. In cosmetics and personal care products, these ingredients are used in the formulation of bath, skin, and hair preparations. Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sesquicarbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate are used to control the acid-base balance of cosmetic products. In cosmetics and personal care products, Sodium Bicarbonate may also be used as an abrasive, a deodorant agent and an oral care agent

Scientific Facts: Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sesquicarbonate, and Sodium Carbonate occur naturally inmineral deposits. Sodium Cabonate is also called soda ash, while Sodium Bicarbate is also called baking soda. In addition to their use in cosmetics and personal care products, Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sesquicarbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate are also approved for use in food. Sodium Bicarbonate is also an approved active ingredient in OTC and anticarries drug products.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reviewed the safety of Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sesquicarbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate and determined that these ingredients were Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS ) for direct addition to food. Sodium Bicarbonate has also been approved as a skin protectant and an anticarries active ingredient inOver-the-Counter (OTC) drug products.
The safety of Sodium Carbonate and related ingredients has been assessed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review
(CIR) Expert Panel. The CIR Expert Panel evaluated the scientific data and concluded that Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sesquicarbonate
and Sodium Bicarbonate were safe as cosmetic ingredients. In 2005, as part of the scheduled re-evaluation of ingredients, the CIR Expert Panel considered available new data on Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Sesquicarbonate and Sodium Bicarboante and reaffirmed the above conclusion.
SODIUM STEAROYL GLUTAMATEThis ingredient is often used as an emulsifier. In addition to this, sodium stearoyl glutamates have cleansing and skin-caring properties, which help to maintain a good skin condition. Sodium stearoyl glutamates are admittted for certified natural cosmetics.

COCAMIDOPROPYL BETAINECocamidopropyl betaine is a surfactant; it has been associated with irritation and allergic contact dermatitis, reactions that could be due to the ingredient itself or to impurities present in it, such as 3-dimethylaminopropylamine.Function(s): Antistatic Agent; Hair Conditioning Agent; Skin-Conditioning Agent - Miscellaneous;Surfactant - Cleansing Agent; Surfactant - Foam Booster; Viscosity Increasing Agent - Aqueous; FOAM BOOSTING; VISCOSITY CONTROLLING
Cocamidopropyl Betaine (CAPB) and Lauramidopropyl Betaine are part of a class of ingredients called amidopropyl betaines. These ingredients consist of various fatty acids bound to amidopropyl betaine.
Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Lauramidopropyl Betaine and related amidopropyl betaines are used mainly as surfactants in cosmetic and personal care products. Surfactants help to clean skin and hair by helping water to mix with oil and dirt so that they can be rinsed away. In this regard, they behave like detergents (soap) and so are found in bath products, skin cleansing products and hair care products, such as shampoos, conditioners and sprays. CAPB is also used in household cleaning products, including laundry detergents, hand dishwashing liquids and hard surface cleaners. Other functions reported for these ingredients include: antistatic agent, hair conditioning agent, skin-conditioning agent - miscellaneous, surfactant - cleansing agent, surfactant - foam booster and viscosity increasing agent - aqueous.
Scientific Facts: Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Lauramidopropyl Betaine and the other related amidopropyl betaines are similar in chemistry. These ingredients share the presence of two manufacturing by-products (3,3-dimethylaminopropylamine [DMAPA] and fatty acid amidopropyl dimethylamine [amidoamine]). DMAPA and amidoamine are both known skin allergens (sensitizers). Therefore, manufacturers keep the levels of DMAPA and amidoamine in ingredients like CAPB and Lauramidopropyl Betaine as low as possible through manufacturing controls and continual quality monitoring.
Cocamidopropyl Betaine and Lauramidopropyl Betaine are zwitterions. This means that these compounds have both positive and negative charges.

1-PROPANAMINIUM, 3-AMINO-N- (CARBOXYMETHYL) -N,N-DIMETHYL-, N-COCO ACYL DERIVS., INNER SALTS; 1-PROPANAMINIUM, N- (CARBOXYMETHYL) -N,N-DIMETHYL-3- [ (1-OXOCOCONUT) AMINO] -, HYDROXIDE, INNER SALT; 1PROPANAMINIUM, 3AMINON (CARBOXYMETHYL) N,NDIMETHYL, NCOCO ACYL DERIVS., HYDROXIDES, INNER SALTS; CADG; COCAMIDO BETAINE; COCAMIDOPROPYL DIMETHYL GLYCINE; COCOAMIDOPROPYL BETAINE; COCOYL AMIDE PROPYLBETAINE; COCOYL AMIDE PROPYLDI METHYL GLYCINE SOLUTION; COCOYL AMIDE PROPYLDIMETHYL GLYCINE; HYDROXIDE INNER SALT 1-PROPANAMINIUM, N- (CARBOXYMETHYL) -N,N-DIMETHYL-3- [ (1-OXOCOCONUT) AMINO] –The safety of Cocamidopropyl Betaine and related amidopropyl betaine ingredients has been assessed on several occasions by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel. In 1991, the CIR Expert Panel reviewed the available published scientific literature, and concluded that CAPB was safe for use in rinse-off cosmetic products at the levels of use reported in the available literature. Due to the potential for skin irritation at higher use concentrations, however the CIR Expert Panel recommended that for cosmetic products intended to remain on the skin for long periods of time (i.e., leave-on products), the concentration of CAPB should not exceed 3%. Based upon new information showing a substantial increase in the number of uses of CAPB, including new uses in aerosol products, and reports of allergic skin reactions in patients who used rinse-off products, the CIR Expert Panel undertook an additional review of CAPB and related amidopropyl betaines in 2012. The primary inquiry for the 2012 review related to the presence of the 3,3-dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) and fatty acid amidopropyl dimethylamine (amidoamine) in CAPB and other related amidopropyl betaines. DMAPA and amidoamine are present in CAPB and other related amidopropyl betaines as manufacturing by-products. DMAPA and amidoamine can sometimes cause allergic skin reactions (i.e., dermal sensitization). However, literature reviewed by the CIR Expert Panel has shown that when the levels of DMAPA and amidoamine are reduced, the number of people reacting is also reduced.Based on its review of the published scientific literature, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that cosmetics using CAPB and related amidopropyl betaines were safe as long as they were formulated to be non-sensitizing. The CIR Expert Panel also advised industry to continue minimizing the concentration of these manufacturing by-products.
Low possibility of allergic reaction
CITRUS AURANTIUM DULCIS OILBitter orange extract. It can have antioxidant properties when eaten (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, December 1999, pages 5239–5244); however, used topically its methanol content makes it potentially sensitizing for skinPlant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts
SULFATES common are Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) and Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES). First introduced into modern hair care in the 1930’s, sulfates revolutionized the health and beauty industry. Prior to their introduction, people relied on simple (but not always effective) soaps and other methods to clean their skin and hair. In comparison, sulfates were powerful, inexpensive and easy to acquire. Best of all, they were responsible for the foaming lather we’ve come to associate with being clean. But now that it’s one of the most common chemicals used in our households, we are beginning to understand that sulfates have an impact on both our health and beauty.
How Sulfates Work? Sulfates are surfactants – molecules that can attract both oil and water: One end of the molecule clings to the oily dirt, while the other clings to water. Translation? They can lift the grease and grime off of our skin and hair, dissolve (emulsify) it into solution and then rinse everything down the drain. Surfactants also make water "wetter." That sounds strange, but consider this: When rain falls on a freshly waxed car, the water beads up. But if you were to spray the car with water mixed with a surfactant, it would then spread all over the car. Water molecules attract one another – part of the phenomena known as surface tension. Surfactants reduce the surface tension of water, allowing it to spread more easily, even permeating into the cortex of the hair shaft (where it causes frizz and other damage).
Sulfates and Your Hair and Scalp
Our skin and hair are part of our natural living ecosystem known as the biome – and sulfates disrupt its delicate balance. Here’s how: Sulfates wash away the natural anti-microbial peptides, proteins, and water-proofing oils our biomes create.Without these health-preserving substances, our hair and scalp are stripped of vital moisture, exposed to harmful microbes, allergens and environmental pollution and vulnerable to damage, infection and illness. Sulfates lift the cuticle of the hair. The outermost layer of the hair shaft is a series of hard-shelled, overlapping hair cells called the cuticle. They lay flat, like shingles on a roof. Owing to the reduced surface tension, sulfates work their way under the cuticle, making it lift and buckle. This exposes the cortex of the hair to moisture, which causes frizz, or to arid air that can cause dryness. The compromised cuticle and cortex weakens the entire hair strand, making it dull and prone to damage, breakage and split ends. Sulfates make your hair take longer to dry. When the cuticle is lifted, more moisture is absorbed into the cortex, which then takes up to twice as long to dry. If you are using a hair dryer, that’s twice as much heat exposure on an already-compromised hair strand. Sulfates leave an anionic charge. Sulfates have a negative electric charge – and that charge remains on your hair and scalp when you rinse the shampoo away. This leaves a dulling residue and can cause static and flyaways. To neutralize this film, the hair must then be coated with a synthetic, silicone-based conditioner (more chemicals), which masks the damage with an artificial shine. Sulfates cause scalp irritation. Since sulfates strip the natural lipids off the scalp, its natural water barrier is broken. Chemicals from products can then permeate the top layers of skin, causing irritation and inflammation. Meanwhile, the underlying layers of skin are exposed to pathogens (disease-causing bacteria) that otherwise wouldn’t be able to get there. Sulfates cause follicle stress. Each hair follicle is covered by something called a "lipid cap." Sulfates remove this protective cap, exposing the good microbiota that live within to the atmosphere. Since they are anaerobic, these good bacteria die, and bad bacteria have direct access to a now undefended follicle.
Sulfate-free? Look again.
Although many consumer products are now labeled "sulfate-free," many of them rely on chemical compounds that are only an atom or two away from a true sulfate. This allows them to wear the badge "non-sulfate" even though they are as destructive as sulfates are. Check your labels for these most common forms of sulfates and their close chemical cousins "sul-fakes":
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)
Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES)
Sodium Lauryl Sulfoacetate
Sodium Lauroyl Isoethionate
Sodium Lauroyl Taurate
Sodium Cocoyl Isoethionate
Sodium Lauroyl Methyl Isoethionate
Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate
Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate
Sulfates are powerful, cheap and everywhere – not just in lathering shampoos, body washes, face cleansers and toothpastes, but also in household cleaners, laundry detergents and dish soaps. In fact, because they are so effective, sulfates are also used in the manufacturing and construction industries to clean and degrease heavy machinery. The problem? By stripping all the the protective oils from your scalp and hair, sulfates overshoot the mark. They are too aggressive.
SILICONESSuper versatile ingredients used very commonly in skin and hair care products. They are actually nothing new: ancient Egyptians already converted sand (sand is a silica and silicones come from silica) into glass using essentially "silicone technology" in 3000 BCE. As for skincare, silicones are used mainly because they are incredibly slippery. Even a small amount of them can take an average formula to a whole new luxurious level. As for hair care, silicones provide slip and shine and make the hair smooth like no other thing. The problem with silicones is that... well, there is not really a problem with them. They are often bad-mouthed by the natural personal care industry, but the claims are not really true. Let's see the three most common ones: Silicones suffocate skin: Skin does not breath so this is hard to understand in the first place. But even if skin breathed, it could with silicones on top of it. As they have large molecules with plenty of space between them, putting a plastic bag all over your face is not the right metaphor. Putting a fish-net all over your face is a better one. Silicones cause or worsen acne: That one is not true either. What's more, research rather shows that silicones can help to make drying and irritating anti-acne ingredients more tolerable. Silicones build up on your hair and ruin it: it's true that some silicones cling onto the hair more than others, but there are many very light, volatile types that do not build up at all. The heaviest one used in hair care is dimethicone. That one smoothes the hair very well but can be a bit more difficult to wash out. If you feel you have a "build-up" problem, avoiding silicones altogether is still an overkill. Choosing products without dimethicone will probably solve your problem.
CITRIC ACIDExtract derived from citrus fruits and used primarily in small amounts to adjust the pH of products to prevent them from being too alkaline. Citric acid is an AHA, and as such, in the right formula and concentration, it can exfoliate skin. However, research on this ability looked at much higher concentrations (20%, for example) than are used in skincare products--not to mention there’s proportionately more research on AHAs glycolic and lactic acids. Moreover, the AHAs lactic and glycolic acid have been shown to be more effective and less likely to romote a stinging reaction on skin.
SOLVENTAct as dissolvent. Often use to dissolve other ingredient.
TALC Talc is known for being the softest mineral on earth. It is number 1 on the Mohs hardness scale, and can be easily scratched by a fingernail. Talc is not commonly seen in collections, as it is usually uninteresting and fairly common, although a few deeply colored and crystallized examples are known and well sought after. Also very popular are the Talc pseudomorphs. Talc forms some very interesting pseudomorphs after many different minerals, and certain localities are known for the specific minerals replaced by Talc.
TALC has been know generally to public and if you are a makeup junkies chances are you know about this ingredients, and while you wanted to avoid this. Beauty companies already and will always published it on their ingredient list.
Baby powder or Mineral makeup.Health concerns including a rare respiratory disease are known to be associated with Talc in its powder form. Although solid forms of Talc are assumed to be safe, and most concerns are only after prolonged exposure, it is advisable to wash hands after handling Talc.
CETEARYL ALCOHOLOther types of alcohols, known as fatty alcohols, which are absolutely non-irritating and can be exceptionally beneficial for skin. Examples you’ll see on ingredient labels include cetyl, stearyl, and cetearyl alcohol. All of these are good ingredients for dry skin, and in small amounts fine for any skin type as they give a pleasing texture and help keep ingredients stable in products. It’s important to discern these skin-friendly forms of alcohol from the problematic types of alcohol.
Other definition: A fatty alcohol that's either produced from the end products of the petroleum industry, or derived from plants (palm oil-palmityl alcohol). It comes in the form of a white, waxy solid. It's no longer derived from sperm whale oil (where it was originally discovered) seeing how whales are now an endangered species.
Likewise, you may have heard that alcohol is a good ingredient because it helps other ingredients like retinol and vitamin C absorb into skin more effectively. Although it’s true that it does enhance absorption of ingredients, the alcohol also destroys skin’s surface and the very substances that keep your skin healthy over the long term. There are certainly other, gentler ways to get good ingredients into skin, without damaging its outer layer, an issue that causes more problems than benefits.
Works as an emollient, emulsifier, thickener and carrying agent for other ingredients contained in a cosmetic solution. It keeps the oil and water parts of an emulsion from separating, and gives products good spreadability. As a thickening agent and surfactant, it helps alter the viscosity and increase the foaming capacity of non-aqueous (i.e. lotions) and aqueous solutions (i.e. shampoo). It is often misinterpreted as an "alcohol" related to ethyl or rubbing alcohol, both of which can be extremely drying to the skin. The truth, in fact, is quite the opposite, as cetyl alcohol is well known to effectively condition and soften the skin and hair. Because of its multi-functional capabilities, this ingredient is used in a wide range of personal care products such as moisturizer, face cream, shampoo/conditioner, anti-aging treatment, hair dye, sunscreen, cleanser and lipstick.
* A fatty alcohol that's either produced from the end products of the petroleum industry, or derived from plants (palm oil-palmityl alcohol). It comes in the form of a white, waxy solid. It's no longer derived from sperm whale oil (where it was originally discovered) seeing how whales are now an endangered species.
Works as an emollient, emulsifier, thickener and carrying agent for other ingredients contained in a cosmetic solution. It keeps the oil and water parts of an emulsion from separating, and gives products good spreadability. As a thickening agent and surfactant, it helps alter the viscosity and increase the foaming capacity of non-aqueous (i.e. lotions) and aqueous solutions (i.e. shampoo). It is often misinterpreted as an "alcohol" related to ethyl or rubbing alcohol, both of which can be extremely drying to the skin. The truth, in fact, is quite the opposite, as cetyl alcohol is well known to effectively condition and soften the skin and hair. Because of its multi-functional capabilities, this ingredient is used in a wide range of personal care products such as moisturizer, face cream, shampoo/conditioner, anti-aging treatment, hair dye, sunscreen, cleanser and lipstick.The FDA includes cetyl alcohol on its list of permitted food additives. The EU Cosmetics Directive allows it to be used in cosmetics as long as it's derived from plants. The CIR Expert Panel has assessed this ingredient as non-sensitizing, non-toxic and safe to use in cosmetic products. Despite the fact that the CIR Expert Panel recognizes this ingredient as non-irritating, many dermatologists recommend that individuals with sensitive/irritated skin avoid it. Many medical experts believe that cetyl alcohol, and many other fatty alcohols, have the ability to altercate the lipid bilayer of the epidermis (protective barrier) and cause allergic dermal reactions in some (see article in 1999 issue of Contact Dermatitis). There are many other medical studiessupporting the potential irritation associated with this ingredient. Considering this information, it's best that sensitive skin types perform a patch test with any product containing this ingredient, particularly anyone suffering from a skin condition such as Rosacea or Psoriasis.
BUTYLENE GLYCOLCommonly-used ingredient that has multiple functions in cosmetics, including as a texture enhancer. It’s similar to propylene glycol, but has a lighter texture.
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review board has evaluated several toxicology tests and other research concerning butylene glycol and has determined it is safe as used in cosmetics products. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has even determined that butylene glycol is safe as a food additive. Butylene glycol can refer to any one of four butanediols Each of the separate four possible structure of butylenes glycol are determined by the relative positions of the two alcoholic groups on the molecule.
1,2-butanediol:
According to the Cosmetic Ingredient Review animal studies have been performed on the oral and dermal toxicity of the substance and it was shown that 1,2-butanediol was not significantly toxic by topical administration. Irritation did occur with ocular application when pure; however irritation was not found when lowered to a concentration of 10%. 1,2-butanediol is said to be >99% pure with possible contaminants being 1,4-butanediol and 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxybutane. It has also been shown to increase skin penetration
of other substances.
According to the Cosmetic Ingredient Review 1,2-butanediol is used as a skin conditioning agent (humecant), solvent and is used to decrease the overall viscosity of a product.
1,3-butanediol:
This ingredient is the most commonly used of the butylenes glycols. It is used as an alternative solvent to propylene glycol or glycerol, usually with improved solvency as well as safety profile. Based upon information from the Cosmetics Database 1,3-butanediol is also used as a humecant skin conditioning agent and is useful for reducing viscosity. These properties make this ingredient important in preventing cosmetics from drying out, other compounds crystallizing and in stabilizing formulations as a whole. This ingredient has a well established use in cosmetics and has been used in a wide variety of products from foundation and anti-aging skin care to lip stick and shampoo.
The safety hazards associated with this ingredient have been well understood for many years. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review compiled a variety of studies on animals and human subjects, and concluded that 1,3-butanediol is non-toxic and does not cause irritation from topical application at the concentrations used in cosmetics. This conclusion has been further backed up by work by the Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, and was reviewed in 2005 (Environmental Protection Agency).
2,3-butanediol:
This compound has very limited use in cosmetics, but it could potentially be used as a viscosity reducer, and most likely has similar properties to other butylenes glycols. It is naturally found in cocoa butter, sweet corn and mussels, so it is thought to be of minimal toxicity (Wikipedia). The safety profile of this chemical is yet to be fully investigated according to the MSDS page, so it may prove to be a skin or eye irritant.
1,4-butanediol:
This butylenes glycol is predominantly used as a solvent in cosmetic formulations, but is found relatively rarely due to its limited properties. Many of the products which it is seen in are eye based cosmetics, due to 1,4-butanediol’s minimal irritation to the eye area with o sign of sensitization (inchem, Cosmetics Database).
When consumed 1,4-butanediol has biological activity, acting as a pro-drug togamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a medical and recreational drug commonly usedas a depressant (Wikipedia). This ingredient only has this activity when administered orally or intravenously, not when applied to the skin topically.

Texture Enhancer
BENZYL ALCOHOLOrganic alcohol that occurs naturally in some fruits (apricots, cranberries) and teas. Its chief function in cosmetics is as a preservative, and it’s among the least sensitizing preservatives in use. High amounts of benzyl alcohol can impart a noticeable floral-like scent to products, as it is part of the fragrance makeup of some essential oils such as jasmine. As a volatile alcohol, it can pose a risk of sensitivity when used in high amounts, but is considered safe as used in cosmetics.Preservatives
ACRYLATESSTERATE-20 METHACRYLATE COPOLYMERSynthetic polymer that blends steareth-20 with one or more forms of methacrylic acid.
Functions as a thickening agent.
Categories: Texture Enhancer